Neurology Book

//fpnotebook.com/

Hypothalamus

Aka: Hypothalamus, Hypothalamus Gland, Anterior Hypothalamus, Medial Hypothalamus, Posterior Hypothalamus, Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus
  1. See Also
    1. Autonomic Nervous System
    2. Pituitary Gland
  2. Definitions
    1. Thalamus
      1. Master control of the Autonomic System (analogous to a thermostat)
      2. Coordinates complex, related reflexive actions (e.g. fight or flight, Body Temperature, increased appetite)
  3. Physiology
    1. Images
      1. hypothalamusPituitaryHormones.png
    2. Master control of the Autonomic System (analogous to a thermostat)
    3. Coordinates complex, related reflexive actions
      1. Fight or flight response (Sympathetic Nervous System)
      2. Increased appetite (Parasympathetic Nervous System)
      3. Body Temperature Regulation
  4. Anatomy
    1. Small organ in the Diencephalon
    2. Anterior Hypothalamus
      1. Supraoptic nucleus
        1. Neurons project into the posterior pituitary where they release Vasopressin (Antidiuretic Hormone, ADH)
      2. Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus
        1. Neurons project into the posterior pituitary where they release Oxytocin or Vasopressin (ADH)
    3. Posterior Hypothalamus
      1. Produces and secretes releasing factors for anterior pituitary Hormones (ACTH, TSH, GH, LH, FSH)
  5. Physiology: Hypothalamus and Pituitary Hormones
    1. Hypothalamus
      1. Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH, CRF)
        1. Stimulates anterior pituitary release of Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
      2. Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH, LHRH)
        1. Stimulates anterior pituitary release of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
        2. Stimulates anterior pituitary release of Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
      3. Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)
        1. Stimulates anterior pituitary release of Growth Hormone
      4. Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH, TRF)
        1. Stimulates anterior pituitary release of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
        2. Stimulates anterior pituitary release of Prolactin
      5. Somatostatin
        1. Inhibits anterior pituitary release of Growth Hormone
        2. Inhibits anterior pituitary release of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
      6. Neurotransmitters
        1. Dopamine released from Hypothalamus inhibits anterior pituitary release of Prolactin
    2. Posterior Pituitary Gland (Hormones produced in the Hypothalamus, released from pituitary)
      1. Oxytocin
        1. Stimulates uterine contractions
        2. Stimulates milk let-down in Lactation
      2. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH, Vasopressin)
        1. Increases renal water reaborption
    3. Anterior Pituitary Gland
      1. Prolactin
        1. Protein synthesized and secreted by Lactotrophs (acidophil cells) in the anterior pituitary
        2. Prolactin stimulates milk secretion into the Breast alveoli in pregnancy and Lactation
        3. Oxytocin stimulates myoepithelial cells to contract, expressing Breast Milk from the nipple
        4. Stimulated by Estrogen, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH)
        5. Inhibition by hypothalamic Dopamine (Prolactin Inhibiting Factor or PIF)
      2. Human Growth Hormone
        1. Polypeptide produced in the acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary
        2. Triggered by Hypoglycemia (or low amino acids) via hypothalamic release of GHRH
        3. Promotes bone and cartilage growth, protein synthesis, glycogen storage, Fatty Acid increase
      3. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
        1. Polypeptide synthesized and secreted by Basophil cells in the anterior pituitary
        2. Stimulation (releasing factors) include Corticotropin Releasing Hormone (CRH) and stress
        3. Inhibition by negative feedback loops (Cortisol inhibits CRH and ACTH release)
        4. ACTH stimulates the Adrenal Cortex to release Cortisol (and to a lesser extent Aldosterone and androgens)
      4. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
        1. See Thyroid Physiology
        2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) is a glycoprotein synthesized in the Basophil cells of the anterior pituitary
        3. Stimulated by Thyroid Releasing Hormone (TRH)
        4. Inhibited by negative feedback from Thyroid Hormones (T4, T3)
        5. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) promotes all aspects of Thyroid Hormone production
          1. Increases iodide uptake and incorporation of Iodine into Thyroglobulin
          2. Increases lysis into active Thyroid Hormones T4 and T3
      5. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
        1. FSH is a glyoprotein secreted by Basophil cells in the anterior Pituitary Gland
        2. Stimulation (releasing factors) is by Hypothalamic Gonadotrophic Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
        3. Inhibited via negative feedback loop by Testosterone, Estrogens, Progesterone and inhibin
        4. FSH stimulates ovarian follicle growth (which secretes Estradiol) in women
        5. FSH stimulates spermatogenesis and sperm maturation within Sertoli Cells in men
      6. Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
        1. LH is a glycoprotein secreted by Basophil cells in the anterior Pituitary Gland
        2. Stimulation is by Hypothalamic Gonadotrophic Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
        3. Inhibited via negative feedback loop by Testosterone, Estrogens, Progesterone and inhibin
        4. LH stimulates ovarian follicles to ovulate and mature into a corpus luteum (produces Estrogen, Progesterone)
        5. LH stimulates Leydig Cells within Testes to produce Testosterone
  6. References
    1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Neuroanatomy, Medmaster, p. 54-60
    2. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 140-1

Hypothalamic structure (C0020663)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The area of the brain that controls body temperature, hunger, and thirst.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. It is composed of several sections called nuclei, each of which controls a specific function.
Definition (NCI) An important supervisory center in the brain, rich in ganglia, nerve fibers, and synaptic connections. It is composed of several sections called nuclei, each of which controls a specific function. The hypothalamus regulates body temperature, blood pressure, heartbeat, metabolism of fats and carbohydrates, and sugar levels in the blood. Through direct attachment to the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus also meters secretions controlling water balance and milk production in the female. The role of the hypothalamus in awareness of pleasure and pain is well established in the laboratory. It is involved in the expression of emotions, such as fear and rage, and in sexual behaviors. Despite its numerous vital functions, the hypothalamus in humans accounts for only 1/300 of total brain weight, and is about the size of an almond. Structurally, it is joined to the thalamus; the two work together to monitor the sleep-wake cycle.
Definition (MSH) Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Definition (CSP) ventral part of the diencephalon extending from the region of the optic chiasm to the caudal border of the mammillary bodies and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the third ventricle.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D007031
SnomedCT 67923007
English Hypothalamus, Preoptico-hypothalamic region, Preoptico-hypothalamic area, hypothalamic, preoptico-hypothalamic region, Hy, hypothalamus, preoptico-hypothalamic area, HYPOTHALAMUS, BRAIN, HYPOTHALAMUS, Preoptico-Hypothalamic Area, Area, Preoptico-Hypothalamic, Preoptico-Hypothalamic Areas, Preoptico Hypothalamic Area, Areas, Preoptico-Hypothalamic, Hypothalamic structure (body structure), Hypothalamic structure, Hypothalamus, NOS
Swedish Hypotalamus
Czech hypotalamus
Finnish Hypotalamus
Russian GIPOTALAMUS, PODBUGORNAIA OBLAST', GIPOTALAMICHESKAIA OBLAST', PODBUGOR'E, ГИПОТАЛАМИЧЕСКАЯ ОБЛАСТЬ, ГИПОТАЛАМУС, ПОДБУГОРНАЯ ОБЛАСТЬ, ПОДБУГОРЬЕ
Croatian HIPOTALAMUS
Latvian Hipotalāms
Polish Podwzgórze
Norwegian Hypotalamus, Hypothalamus
Portuguese Organum Vasculosum da Lamina Terminalis, Lâmina Terminal, Hipotálamo
Spanish estructura hipotalámica (estructura corporal), estructura hipotalámica, hipotálamo, Hipotálamo
French Hypothalamus
German Hypothalamus
Italian Ipotalamo
Dutch Hypothalamus
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Hypothalamus, Anterior (C0020664)

Definition (MSH) The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D007032
English Anterior Hypothalamus, Hypothalamus, Anterior
Swedish Hypotalamus, främre
Czech hypotalamus přední
Finnish Etuhypotalamus
Russian GIPOTALAMUS PEREDNII, GIPOTALAMICHESKAIA OBLAST' SUPRAOPTICHESKAIA, ГИПОТАЛАМИЧЕСКАЯ ОБЛАСТЬ СУПРАОПТИЧЕСКАЯ, ГИПОТАЛАМУС ПЕРЕДНИЙ
Polish Podwzgórze przednie
Norwegian Pars anterior hypothalami, Hypothalamus, Pars anterior, Hypotalamus, fremre
French Hypothalamus antérieur
German Hypothalamus, Pars anterior
Italian Ipotalamo anteriore
Dutch Hypothalamus, Pars anterior
Portuguese Hipotálamo Anterior
Spanish Hipotálamo Anterior
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Hypothalamus, Middle (C0020669)

Definition (MSH) Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D007033
English Hypothalamus, Medial, Hypothalamus, Middle, Medial Hypothalamus, Middle Hypothalamus, Intermediate hypothalamic region, Intermediate hypothalamic area, Hypothalamic Region, Intermediate, Hypothalamic Regions, Intermediate, Intermediate Hypothalamic Region, Intermediate Hypothalamic Regions, Region, Intermediate Hypothalamic, Regions, Intermediate Hypothalamic, intermediate hypothalamic region, IHR, Regio hypothalamica intermedia, Area hypothalamica intermedia
French Hypothalamus médial, Hypothalamus moyen, Hypothalamus médian, Région hypothalamique moyenne
Swedish Hypotalamus, mittre
Czech hypotalamus střední
Finnish Keskihypotalamus
Russian GIPOTALAMUS SREDNII, GIPOTALAMUS MEDIAL'NYI, GIPOTALAMUS VORONKOOBRAZNYI, ГИПОТАЛАМУС ВОРОНКООБРАЗНЫЙ, ГИПОТАЛАМУС МЕДИАЛЬНЫЙ, ГИПОТАЛАМУС СРЕДНИЙ
Japanese 視床下部内側部, 内側部-視床下部
Croatian Not Translated[Hypothalamus, Middle]
Latvian Not Translated[Hypothalamus, Middle]
Polish Podwzgórze środkowe
Norwegian Hypothalamus, Regio intermedia, Midtre hypotalamus, Hypothalamus, Pars medialis, Hypotalamus, midtre
German Hypothalamus, Pars medialis, Hypothalamus, mittlerer, Hypothalamus, Regio intermedia
Italian Ipotalamo mediano
Dutch Hypothalamus, pars medialis
Portuguese Hipotálamo Médio, Região Hipotalâmica Intermediária
Spanish Hipotalamo Medial, Hipotálamo Medio, Región Hipotalámica Intermedia
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Posterior Hypothalamic Region (C0020670)

Definition (MSH) The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D007034
English Hypothalamus, Posterior, Posterior hypothalamic region, Mammillary level of hypothalamus, Mammillary region, Posterior hypothalamus, Hypothalamic Region, Posterior, Hypothalamic Regions, Posterior, Posterior Hypothalamic Regions, Region, Posterior Hypothalamic, Regions, Posterior Hypothalamic, mammillary region, posterior hypothalamic region, mammillary level of hypothalamus, PHR, posterior hypothalamus, Posterior Hypothalamic Region, Hypothalamus posterior, Regio hypothalamica posterior, Area hypothalamica posterior, Hypothalamica Posterior, Area, Posterior Hypothalamus, Region, Mammillary, Area Hypothalamica Posterior, Posterior, Area Hypothalamica, Hypothalamus Posteriors, Posteriors, Hypothalamus, Mammillary Regions, Area Hypothalamica Posteriors, Posteriors, Area Hypothalamica, Posterior, Hypothalamus, Hypothalamica Posteriors, Area, Mammillary Region, Hypothalamus Posterior, Regions, Mammillary
Swedish Hypotalamus, bakre
Czech hypotalamus zadní
Finnish Takahypotalamus
Russian GIPOTALAMUS ZADNII, ГИПОТАЛАМУС ЗАДНИЙ
Italian Regione posteriore dell'ipotalamo, Ipotalamo posteriore
Polish Podwzgórze tylne
Japanese 後部-視床下部, 視床下部後部
Norwegian Hypothalamus, Pars posterior, Bakre hypotalamus, Hypotalamus, bakre del
French Hypothalamus postérieur, Région hypothalamique dorsale, Région hypothalamique postérieure
German Hypothalamus, Pars posterior, Hypothalamus, posteriore Region, Posteriore Hypothalamusregion
Dutch Hypothalamus, Pars posterior
Portuguese Hipotálamo Posterior, Região Hipotalâmica Posterior
Spanish Hipotálamo Posterior, Región Hipotalámica Posterior, Región Posterior Hipotalámica
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


hypothalamus gland (C0885432)

Definition (ALT) Hypothalamus gland.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Organic Chemical (T109)
English hypothalamus gland, gland hypothalamus, glands hypothalamus, Hypothalamus / hypothalamus gland, hypothalamus/hypothalamus gl
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


You are currently viewing the original 'fpnotebook.com\legacy' version of this website. Internet Explorer 8.0 and older will automatically be redirected to this legacy version.

If you are using a modern web browser, you may instead navigate to the newer desktop version of fpnotebook. Another, mobile version is also available which should function on both newer and older web browsers.

Please Contact Me as you run across problems with any of these versions on the website.

Navigation Tree