Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Book

Gene

  • Nucleic Acid

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Nucleic Acid

Aka: Nucleic Acid, DNA, Deoxyribonucleic Acid, RNA, Ribonucleic Acid, Purine, Pyrimidine, Nucleoside, Nucleotide, DNA Replication, DNA Transcription, Genetic Transcription, Protein Biosynthesis, RNA Translation, Codon, Anticodon, Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA, DNA Polymerase, DNA Ligase, RNA Polymerase
  1. Definitions
    1. Pyrimidine
      1. Single ringed hexagonal structure forming base components of DNA and RNA (in addition to Purines)
      2. DNA is composed of the Pyrimidine based cytosine and thymine, and while RNA is composed of cytosine and uracil
    2. Purine
      1. Two ringed structures (Hexagon and Pentagon) forming base components of DNA and RNA (in addition to Pyrimidines)
      2. DNA and RNA are composed of the Purine based Adenine and Guanine
    3. Nucleoside
      1. Glycosylamine consisting of a base (Pyrimidine or Purine) combined with a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
      2. Ribose is the sugar moiety in RNA and 2-deoxyribose in DNA
    4. Nucleotide
      1. nucleotides.png
      2. Nucleotides combine a Nucleoside with a phosphate moiety
      3. DNA and RNA are composed of Nucleotides strung together
      4. DNA is composed of the Pyrimidine Nucleotides cytosine and thymine and purine Nucleotides Adenine and Guanine
      5. RNA is composed of the Pyrimidine Nucleotides cytosine and uracil and purine Nucleotides Adenine and Guanine
    5. Nucleic Acid
      1. Linear sequence of Nucleotides to form either DNA or RNA
    6. Base Pairs
      1. Pyrimidine Nucleotides Thymine (T, in DNA) and Uracil (U, in RNA) pair with the purine Nucleotide Adenine (A)
      2. Pyrimidine Nucleotide Cytosine (C) pairs with the purine Nucleotide Guanine (G)
  2. Physiology: DNA and RNA
    1. DNA Replication in Cell Division
      1. Prior to cell division, a complete copy of the genome in DNA must be created
      2. Pre-initiation complex forms
        1. DNA double helix is unwound into two, complementary single strands by the enzyme helicase
          1. Helicase creates a replication fork on the DNA strand, that unravels in both directions
        2. Topoisomerase (DNA gyrase) facilitates straight, less coiled DNA single strands
        3. Primase synthesizes short primer sequences of RNA on the DNA single strand
          1. Primer sequences mark starting sites for DNA polymerization
      3. Elongation
        1. DNA Polymerase
          1. Starts at a primer site, facilitating polymerization of each Nucleotide sequentially, forming a new DNA fragment
          2. Mismatched Nucleotides are hydrolyzed and removed by DNA Polymerase
        2. DNA Ligase
          1. Connects the DNA fragments ("Okazaki Fragments") synthesized by DNA Polymerase into a single DNA strand
      4. DNA Cleanup
        1. Endonucleases
          1. Hydrolyze Nucleotide connections at the start of a DNA fragment to be excised
          2. Allows for excision of defective DNA segments, both during replication, as well as general DNA housekeeping
        2. Exonucleases
          1. Hydolyze terminal connections of a DNA fragment to be excised
      5. Resources
        1. DNA Replication
          1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA_replication
    2. DNA Transcription to RNA
      1. Initiation
        1. Core Promoters are located near transcription starting points
        2. General Transcription Factors and enhancers trigger the start of transcription
      2. RNA Polymerase
        1. Begins transcribing the DNA at a promoter site, and reads until it reaches a stop sequence
        2. Facilitates polymerization of each Nucleotide sequentially, forming a new RNA fragment
      3. RNA Types
        1. Messenger RNA (mRNA)
          1. Primary template for Protein synthesis, to be translated by ribosomes
        2. Transfer RNA (tRNA)
          1. Three Nucleotide sequences (Anticodons) are each matched to a specific Amino Acid (see below)
          2. tRNA is assembled (with an Anticodon attached to an Amino Acid) with the enzyme Amino Acyl-tRNA synthetase
          3. Anticodons match the 3 Nucleotide codons on mRNA
          4. During translation at the ribosomes, tRNA attaches to corresponding mRNA, creating an Amino Acid chain (Protein)
        3. Ribosomal RNA
          1. Forms an important component of the ribosome
          2. Includes ribozymes (peptide bond catalysts)
      4. Resources
        1. DNA Transcription
          1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcription_(biology)
    3. RNA Translation to Protein
      1. mRNA is translated by Ribosomes into Protein
      2. Each codon (3 Nucleotide sequence) within mRNA is matched to an anti-codon of tRNA linked to an Amino Acid
        1. Twenty Amino Acids are each assigned at least 2 to 3 matching codons (61 codons out of 64 possible sequences)
        2. The 3 remaining codons (of 64 total) function as stop signals
        3. tRNA assembly (Anticodon with attached Amino Acid) is synthesized via enzyme Amino Acyl-tRNA synthetase (see above)
      3. Resources
        1. RNA Translation
          1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation_(biology)
  3. Physiology: Nucleotides
    1. nucleotides.png
    2. Purines (Adenine and Guanine)
      1. Purine synthesis via two pathways
        1. Salvage of already formed Purines combined with Phosphoribosyl Pyrophosphate (PRPP)
        2. Multistep synthesis from glycine, Tetrahydrofolate, glutamine, CO2, Aspartate
      2. Purine metabolism
        1. Urate formation, that is renally excreted
    3. Pyrimidines (Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil)
      1. Pyrimidine synthesis from Aspartate and carbomyl phosphate
      2. Pyrimidine metabolism (various pathways, examples are shown)
        1. Cytosine and uracil form alanine
        2. Thymine forms beta-aminoisobutyrate
    4. Synthesis of other molecules from Nucleotides
      1. Adenine: ATP, NADH, FADH, CoA, cAMP
      2. Guanine: GTP
      3. Uracil: UDP-Glucose (Glycogen precursor)
  4. References
    1. Goldberg (2001) Biochemistry, Medmaster, Miami, p. 36-9

Anticodon (C0003284)

Definition (MSH) The sequential set of three nucleotides in TRANSFER RNA that interacts with its complement in MESSENGER RNA, the CODON, during translation in the ribosome.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D000926
English Anticodon, Anticodon [Chemical/Ingredient], anticodons, anticodon, Anticodons
Swedish Antikodon
Czech antikodon
Finnish Antikodoni
Russian ANTIKODON, АНТИКОДОН
Polish Antykodon
French Anticodon
German Anticodon
Italian Anticodone
Dutch Anticodon
Portuguese Anticodon
Spanish Anticodón
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Codon (nucleotide sequence) (C0009221)

Definition (NCI) A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) In DNA or RNA, a sequence of 3 consecutive nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid or signals the termination of gene translation (stop or termination codon).
Definition (MSH) A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Concepts Nucleotide Sequence (T086)
MSH D003062
English Codon, Codon [Chemical/Ingredient], codons, codon, Codon (nucleotide sequence), Codons
Swedish Kodon
Czech kodon
Finnish Kodoni
Russian KODON, КОДОН
Polish Kodon
Japanese 暗号づけ単位, コドン
French Codon
German Codon, Kodon
Italian Codone
Dutch Codon
Portuguese Códon
Spanish Codón
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


DNA (C0012854)

Definition (NCI_CDISC) A long linear double-stranded polymer formed from nucleotides attached to a deoxyribose backbone; associated with the transmission of genetic information.
Definition (NCI) A long linear double-stranded polymer formed from nucleotides attached to a deoxyribose backbone and found in the nucleus of a cell; associated with the transmission of genetic information.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The molecules inside cells that carry genetic information and pass it from one generation to the next.
Definition (MSH) A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Definition (CSP) deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells; eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions; DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Definition (ALT) Desoxyribonucleic acid.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D004247
SnomedCT 24851008
LNC LP32416-7, LP18329-0, MTHU003299
English Deoxyribonucleic Acid, Deoxyribonucleic acids, DNA molecule, DNA [Chemical/Ingredient], dna molecules, dna molecule, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), deoxyribonucleic acids, dsDNA, Double-stranded DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid, Deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA - Deoxyribonucleic acid, Deoxyribonucleic acid (substance), DNA, Deoxyribonucleic acid, NOS, DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid), DNA / desoxyribonucleic acid, dna/desoxyribonucleic acid
Swedish DNA
Czech DNA, kyselina deoxyribonukleová
Finnish DNA
Italian Acido desossiribonucleico, DNA
Russian DEZOKSIRIBONUKLEINOVAIA KISLOTA, DNK, DNK DVUKHSPIRAL'NAIA, ДЕЗОКСИРИБОНУКЛЕИНОВАЯ КИСЛОТА, ДНК, ДНК ДВУХСПИРАЛЬНАЯ
Japanese デオキシリボ核酸, 二本鎖DNA, 二重鎖DNA
Croatian DNK
Polish Kwas deoksyrybonukleinowy, DNA
Norwegian Not Translated[DNA]
Portuguese Ácido Desoxirribonucleico, DNA Dupla Hélice, DNA Bicatenário, DNA de Dupla Cadeia, Dupla Hélice de DNA, ADN, DNA de Fita Dupla, DNA Dupla Fita, DNA de Hélice Dupla, DNA
Spanish DNA, ADN de Cadena Doble, ADN Bicatenario, ADN de Hélice Doble, ADN de Doble Filamento, ADN de Doble Hélice, ADN de Filamento Doble, Doble Hélice de ADN, ADN, ácido desoxirribonucleico (sustancia), ácido desoxirribonucleico, Ácido Desoxirribonucleico
French ADN, Acide désoxyribonucléique
German DNA, DNS, Desoxyribonucleinsäure
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase (C0012892)

Definition (NCI) Catalyses DNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of a DNA strand by one nucleotide at a time. Cannot initiate a chain de novo. Requires a primer, which may be DNA or RNA. (IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature)
Definition (NCI) Nucleotidyltransferases that catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA. EC 2.7.7.7 or EC 2.7.7.49
Definition (MSH) DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Enzyme (T126)
MSH D004259
SnomedCT 36387003
LNC LP71564-6
English DNA Dependent DNA Polymerases, DNA Polymerases, DNA Polymerases, DNA-Dependent, DNA-Dependent DNA Polymerases, Polymerases, DNA, Polymerases, DNA-Dependent DNA, DNA polymerase, Deoxynucleoside-triphosphate:DNA deoxynucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed), DNA Directed DNA Polymerase, DNA Polymerase, DNA-Directed, DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase, Polymerase, DNA-Directed DNA, DNA-directed DNA polymerase (substance), Deoxyribonucleic acid-directed deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase (substance), Deoxyribonucleic acid-directed deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase, DNA directed DNA polymerase, deoxyribonucleic acid polymerase, DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase [Chemical/Ingredient], polymerase DNA, dna polymerase, DNA polymerases, DNA nucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed), DNA-directed DNA polymerase, DNA Polymerase, DNA-Dependent DNA Polymerase, DNA-directed DNA Polymerase, EC 2.7.7.7
Spanish ácido desoxirribonucleico polimerasa dirigida por ácido desoxirribonucleico, ácido desoxirribonucleico polimerasa dirigida por ácido desoxirribonucleico (sustancia), ADN polimerasa, dirigida por ADN (sustancia), ADN Polimerasa Dirigida por ADN, ADN nucleotidiltransferasa (dirigida por ADN), ADN polimerasa, dirigida por ADN, ADN Polimerasas ADN-Dependientes, ADN Polimerasas
Swedish DNA-styrt DNA-polymeras
Czech DNA řízená DNA-polymerasa
Finnish DNA-ohjattu DNA-polymeraasi
Russian DNK-POLIMERAZY, DNK-POLIMERAZY (DNK-NAPRAVLIAEMYE), DNK-ZAVISIMYE DNK-POLIMERAZY, DNK-NAPRAVLIAEMAIA DNK-POLIMERAZA, ДНК-ЗАВИСИМЫЕ ДНК-ПОЛИМЕРАЗЫ, ДНК-НАПРАВЛЯЕМАЯ ДНК-ПОЛИМЕРАЗА, ДНК-ПОЛИМЕРАЗЫ, ДНК-ПОЛИМЕРАЗЫ (ДНК-НАПРАВЛЯЕМЫЕ)
Japanese DNA依存性DNAポリメラーゼ, DNAポリメラーゼ
Polish Polimerazy DNA, Polimeraza DNA skierowana na DNA
Croatian Not Translated[DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase]
Portuguese DNA Polimerases DNA-Dependentes, DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA, DNA Polimerases, DNA Polimerases Dependentes de DNA
French ADN polymérase ADN-dépendante, ADN polymérase dirigée par l'ADN, ADN polymérase, DNA-directed DNA polymerase
German DNA-Polymerasen, DNA-gesteuerte DNA-Polymerase, DNA-abhängige DNA-Polymerasen
Italian DNA Polimerasi DNA dipendenti
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Nucleic Acids (C0028606)

Definition (NCI) Type of substance that may be described as a linear sequence of nucleosides typically linked through phosphate esters.
Definition (CSP) naturally occurring or synthetic polynucleotides; DNA or RNA.
Definition (MSH) High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Concepts Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114) , Biologically Active Substance (T123)
MSH D009696
SnomedCT 27380003
English Acids, Nucleic, Nucleic Acids [Chemical/Ingredient], nucleic acid, acid nucleic, nucleic acids, acids nucleic, Nucleic acids, NUCLEIC ACID SUBSTANCE, Nucleic acid, Nucleic acid (substance), Nucleic Acids, Nucleic acid, NOS, Nucleic Acid
Swedish Nukleinsyror
Czech nukleové kyseliny
Finnish Nukleiinihapot
Russian NUKLEINOVYE KISLOTY, НУКЛЕИНОВЫЕ КИСЛОТЫ
Croatian NUKLEINSKE KISELINE
Polish Kwasy nukleinowe
Norwegian Not Translated[Nucleic Acids]
Spanish ácido nucleico (sustancia), ácido nucleico, Ácidos Nucleicos
French Acides nucléiques, Nucléiques, acides
German Nucleinsäuren
Italian Acidi nucleici
Portuguese Ácidos Nucleicos
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Nucleosides (C0028621)

Definition (NCI) Any of the glycosylamines consisting of either a purine or pyrimidine nucleobase, to a ribose or deoxyribose ring. Examples of these include cytidine, uridine, adenosine, guanosine, thymidine, inosine and others.
Definition (MSH) Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Definition (CSP) purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose.
Concepts Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D009705
SnomedCT 47368004
English Nucleosides, Nucleosides [Chemical/Ingredient], nucleosides, nucleoside, Nucleoside, Nucleoside (substance), Nucleoside, NOS
Swedish Nukleosider
Czech nukleosidy
Finnish Nukleosidit
Russian NUKLEOZIDY, НУКЛЕОЗИДЫ
Polish Nukleozydy
Croatian NUKLEOZIDI
Portuguese Nucleosídios, Nucleosídeos
Spanish nucleósido (sustancia), nucleósido, Nucleósidos
French Nucléoside
German Nucleoside
Italian Nucleosidi
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Nucleotides (C0028630)

Definition (NCI) A subunit of DNA or RNA consisting of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate molecule, and a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA).
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A molecule consisting of a nitrogen-containing base (adenine, guanine, thymine, or cytosine in DNA; adenine, guanine, uracil, or cytosine in RNA), a phosphate group, and a sugar (deoxyribose in DNA; ribose in RNA). DNA and RNA are polymers comprised of many nucleotides, strung together like beads in a necklace.
Definition (CSP) nucleoside phosphates, the building blocks of nucleic acids.
Definition (MSH) The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Concepts Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D009711
SnomedCT 71211001
LNC LP31405-1
English Nucleotides, Nucleotides [Chemical/Ingredient], nucleotide, nucleotides, Nucleotide, Nucleotide (substance), Nucleotide, NOS
Swedish Nukleotider
Czech nukleotidy
Finnish Nukleotidit
French Nucléotides, Nucléotide
Russian NUKLEOTIDY, НУКЛЕОТИДЫ
Croatian Not Translated[Nucleotides]
Polish Nukleotydy
Norwegian Not Translated[Nucleotides]
Portuguese Nucleótidos, Nucleotídios, Nucleotídeos
Spanish nucleótido (sustancia), nucleótido, Nucleótidos
German Nucleotide
Italian Nucleotidi
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


DNA Ligases (C0032467)

Definition (MSH) Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Enzyme (T126)
MSH D011088
English DNA Joinases, Joinases, DNA, Ligases, DNA, Ligases, Polydeoxyribonucleotide, Polydeoxyribonucleotide Ligases, Polydeoxyribonucleotide Synthetases, Synthetases, Polydeoxyribonucleotide, DNA Ligases [Chemical/Ingredient], DNA ligases, DNA Ligases
Swedish DNA-ligaser
Czech DNA-ligasy, polydeoxyribonukleotidsynthetasy
Finnish DNA-ligaasit
Russian DNK-REPARIRUIUSHCHIE FERMENTY, DNK-LIGAZY, POLIDEZOKSIRIBONUKLEOTIDSINTETAZY, POLIDEZOKSIRIBONUKLEOTID-LIGAZY, ДНК-ЛИГАЗЫ, ДНК-РЕПАРИРУЮЩИЕ ФЕРМЕНТЫ, ПОЛИДЕЗОКСИРИБОНУКЛЕОТИД-ЛИГАЗЫ, ПОЛИДЕЗОКСИРИБОНУКЛЕОТИДСИНТЕТАЗЫ
Japanese ポリデオキシリボヌクレオチドリガーゼ, ポリデオキシリボヌクレオチドシンターゼ, DNAリガーゼ, ポリデオキシリボヌクレオチドシンターゼ(NAD+), DNAジョイナーゼ, ポリデオキシリボヌクレオチドシンテターゼ, DNAリガーゼ(ATP), DNA修復酵素, シーラーゼ, DNAリガーゼ(NAD+), ポリデオキシリボヌクレオチドシンターゼ(ATP), DNA連結酵素, DNA合成酵素
Italian Poli(deossiribonucleotide) ligasi, Poli(deossiribonucleotide) sintetasi, DNA ligasi
Polish Ligazy DNA, Syntetaza polidezoksyrybonukleotydowa
French Polydeoxyribonucleotide ligases, Polydeoxyribonucleotide synthetases, ADN joinases, ADN ligases, DNA ligases
Norwegian Polydeoxyribonukleotid-ligaser, Polydeoksiribonukleotid-ligaser, DNA-ligaser, Polydeoxyribonukleotid-syntetaser, Polydeoksiribonukleotid-syntetaser
German DNA-Joinasen, DNA-Ligasen, DNA-Repair-Enzyme, Polydesoxyribonucleotid-Ligasen, Polydesoxyribonucleotid-Synthetasen
Portuguese DNA Ligases, Polidesoxirribonucleotídeo Ligases, Polidesoxirribonucleotídeo Sintetases
Spanish ADN Ligasas, Polidesoxirribonucleotido Ligasas, Polidesoxirribonucleotido Sintetasas
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Purines (C0034140)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) One of two chemical compounds that cells use to make the building blocks of DNA and RNA. Examples of purines are adenine and guanine. Purines are also found in meat and meat products. They are broken down by the body to form uric acid, which is passed in the urine. High levels of uric acid in the body may cause gout.
Definition (MSH) A series of heterocyclic compounds that are variously substituted in nature and are known also as purine bases. They include ADENINE and GUANINE, constituents of nucleic acids, as well as many alkaloids such as CAFFEINE and THEOPHYLLINE. Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism.
Definition (CSP) bicyclic ring structure consisting of fused imidazole and pyrimidine rings, with nitrogen atoms at the 1,3,7, and 9 positions; the basic structure of adenine, guanine, and other biologically important bases.
Concepts Organic Chemical (T109)
MSH D011687
SnomedCT 45386002
English Purines, Purines [Chemical/Ingredient], purines, purine, beta-Purine, 1H-Purine, PURINE, Purine, Purine (substance), Purine, NOS
Swedish Puriner
Czech puriny
Finnish Puriinit
Russian PURINY, ПУРИНЫ
Croatian PURINI
Polish Puryny pochodne
Norwegian Not Translated[Purines]
Spanish purina (sustancia), purina, Purinas
French Purines
German Purine
Italian Purine
Portuguese Purinas
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Pyrimidines (C0034289)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) One of two chemical compounds that cells use to make the building blocks of DNA and RNA. Examples of pyrimidines are cytosine, thymine, and uracil. Cytosine and thymine are used to make DNA and cytosine and uracil are used to make RNA.
Definition (NCI) One of two classes of heterocyclic nitrogenous bases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA: in DNA the pyrimidines are cytosine and thymine, in RNA uracil replaces thymine.
Definition (CSP) 6-membered aromatic ring structure with 2 meta nitrogen heteroatoms.
Definition (MSH) A family of 6-membered heterocyclic compounds occurring in nature in a wide variety of forms. They include several nucleic acid constituents (CYTOSINE; THYMINE; and URACIL) and form the basic structure of the barbiturates.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D011743
SnomedCT 7321000
Swedish Pyrimidiner
Czech pyrimidiny
Finnish Pyrimidiinit
Russian PIRIMIDINY, ПИРИМИДИНЫ
Croatian PIRIMIDINI
English Pyrimidines [Chemical/Ingredient], pyrimidines, pyrimidine, PYRIMIDINE, Pyrimidine, Pyrimidine (substance), Pyrimidines, Pyrimidine, NOS
Polish Pirymidyny pochodne
Norwegian Not Translated[Pyrimidines]
Spanish pirimidina (sustancia), pirimidina, Pirimidinas
French Pyrimidines
German Pyrimidine
Italian Pirimidine
Portuguese Pirimidinas
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


RNA (C0035668)

Definition (NCI_CDISC) Single-stranded long chain of nucleotides containing ribose. It is the end product of DNA transcription by the enzyme RNA polymerase. It is essential in protein synthesis.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) One of two types of nucleic acid made by cells. Ribonucleic acid contains information that has been copied from DNA (the other type of nucleic acid). Cells make several different forms of ribonucleic acid, and each form has a specific job in the cell. Many forms of ribonucleic acid have functions related to making proteins. Ribonucleic acid is also the genetic material of some viruses instead of DNA. Ribonucleic acid can be made in the laboratory and used in research studies.
Definition (NCI) Single-stranded long chain of nucleotides containing ribose. It is the end product of DNA transcription by the enzyme RNA polymerase. It is essential in protein synthesis.
Definition (MSH) A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Definition (CSP) ribonucleic acid; polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached; RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity.
Definition (ALT) Ribonucleic acid.
Concepts Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D012313
SnomedCT 27888000
LNC LP32423-3, LP19275-4
English Acid, Ribonucleic, Ribonucleic Acid, Non Polyadenylated RNA, Non-Polyadenylated RNA, RNA, Non Polyadenylated, RNA, Non-Polyadenylated, Ribonucleic acids, Gene Products, RNA, RNA Gene Products, RNA [Chemical/Ingredient], rnas, ribonucleic acid (RNA), rna, ribonucleic acid, Ribonucleic acid, RNA - Ribonucleic acid, Ribonucleic acid (substance), RNA, Ribonucleic acid, NOS, RNA (Ribonucleic Acid), Ribonucleinicum acidum / ribonucleic acid, ribonucleinicum acidum/ribon
Swedish RNA
Czech RNA
Portuguese Ácido Ribonucleico, ARN, RNA, RNA não Poliadenilado
Finnish RNA
Italian Prodotti genici dell'RNA, RNA non poliadenilato, Acido ribonucleico, Prodotti genici del RNA, RNA
Russian RNK, RIBONUKLEINOVAIA KISLOTA, РИБОНУКЛЕИНОВАЯ КИСЛОТА, РНК
Croatian RNK
Polish RNA, Kwas rybonukleinowy
Japanese リボ核酸, ノンポリアデニレートRNA
Spanish RNA, ARN, ácido ribonucleico (sustancia), ácido ribonucleico, ARN no Poliadenilatado, Ácido Ribonucleico
French ARN, Acide ribonucléique
German RNA, RNA, nicht Polyadenylat-, Ribonucleinsäure
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


DNA-Directed RNA Polymerase (C0035681)

Definition (NCI) RNA polymerases comprise a group of enzymes that catalyze extension, one nucleotide at a time, of the 3 prime-end of an RNA strand along a complementary DNA template.
Definition (NCI) An enzyme that catalyzes the stepwise addition of ribonucleotides to the 3' end of a growing RNA chain using a single-stranded DNA template. This reaction, transcription, is important in the flow of information from DNA to proteins. Three different polymerase protein complexes have been identified and characterized.
Definition (MSH) Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Enzyme (T126)
MSH D012321
SnomedCT 74521006, 116737002
English DNA Dependent RNA Polymerases, DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerases, Polymerase, RNA, Polymerases, DNA-Dependent RNA, Polymerases, RNA, RNA Polymerase, RNA Polymerases, RNA Polymerases, DNA-Dependent, Transcriptases, Nucleoside-triphosphate:RNA nucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed), DNA Directed RNA Polymerase, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerase, Polymerase, DNA-Directed RNA, RNA Polymerase, DNA-Directed, DNA-directed RNA polymerase (substance), RNA polymerase (substance), Deoxyribonucleic acid-directed ribonucleic acid polymerase (substance), Deoxyribonucleic acid-directed ribonucleic acid polymerase, RNA polymerase, Ribonucleic acid polymerase, DNA directed RNA polymerase, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases [Chemical/Ingredient], polymerase rna, rna polymerase, Ribonucleic acid polymerase (substance), DNA Directed RNA Polymerases, DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases, Polymerases, DNA-Directed RNA, RNA Polymerases, DNA-Directed, RNA polymerases, DNA-directed RNA polymerase, RNA nucleotidyltransferase (DNA-directed), DNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase, DNA-directed RNA Polymerase, EC 2.7.7.6
Spanish ARN polimerasa, dirigida por ADN, ácido ribonucleico polimerasa dirigida por ácido desoxirribonucleico, ARN polimerasa, dirigida por ADN (sustancia), polimerasa de ácido ribonucleico dirigida por ácido desoxirribonucleico, ARN polimerasa (sustancia), ácido ribonucleico polimerasa dirigida por ácido desoxirribonucleico (sustancia), polimerasa de ácido ribonucleico dirigida por ácido desoxirribonucleico (sustancia), ARN Polimerasas Dirigidas por ADN, polimerasa de ácido ribonucleico, ARN polimerasa, polimerasa de ácido ribonucleico (sustancia), ARN nucleotidiltransferasa (dirigida por ADN), ARN Polimerasas ADN-Dependientes, ARN Polumerasas, Transcriptasas
Swedish DNA-styrt RNA-polymeraser
Czech DNA řízené RNA-polymerasy, RNA-polymerasy, transkriptasy
Finnish DNA:han suuntautuvat RNA-polymeraasit
Italian RNA polimerasi, RNA polimerasi DNA dipendente
Russian TRANSKRIPTAZY, DNK-NAPRAVLIAEMAIA RNK-POLIMERAZA, RNK-POLIMERAZY (DNK-NAPRAVLIAEMYE), DNK-NAPRAVLIAEMYE RNK-POLIMERAZY, DNK-ZAVISIMYE RNK-POLIMERAZY, RNK-POLIMERAZY, ДНК-ЗАВИСИМЫЕ РНК-ПОЛИМЕРАЗЫ, ДНК-НАПРАВЛЯЕМАЯ РНК-ПОЛИМЕРАЗА, ДНК-НАПРАВЛЯЕМЫЕ РНК-ПОЛИМЕРАЗЫ, РНК-ПОЛИМЕРАЗЫ, РНК-ПОЛИМЕРАЗЫ (ДНК-НАПРАВЛЯЕМЫЕ), ТРАНСКРИПТАЗЫ
Japanese RNAポリメラーゼ, RNAポリメラーゼ-DNA依存性, DNA依存性RNAポリメラーゼ, RNAポリメラーゼ-DNA依存, DNA依存RNAポリメラーゼ, 転写酵素
Croatian RNK POLIMERAZE KOJIMA UPRAVLJA DNK
Polish Polimerazy RNA skierowane na DNA, Polimeraza RNA skierowana NA DNA, Polimerazy RNA
Portuguese RNA Polimerases DNA-Dependentes, RNA Polimerases, RNA Polimerases Dependentes de DNA, RNA Polimerases Dirigidas por DNA, Transcriptases
French ARN polymérases ADN-dépendantes, ARN polymérases dirigées par l'ADN, ARN polymérases, DNA-directed RNA polymerases, Transcriptases
German DNA-gesteuerte RNA-Polymerase, RNA-Polymerasen, Transkriptasen, DNA-gesteuerte RNA-Polymerasen, DNA-abhängige RNA-Polymerasen
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


RNA, Messenger (C0035696)

Definition (NCI) A class of RNA molecule containing protein-coding information in its nucleotide sequence that can be translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A type of RNA found in cells. Messenger RNA molecules carry the genetic information needed to make proteins. They carry the information from the DNA in the nucleus of the cell to the cytoplasm where the proteins are made.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) A class of RNA molecule containing protein-coding information in its nucleotide sequence that can be translated into the amino acid sequence of a protein.
Definition (MSH) RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Definition (CSP) RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis; eukaryotic messenger RNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D012333
SnomedCT 69908008
English Messenger RNA, mRNA, RNA, Messenger, messenger ribonucleic acid, RNA, Messenger [Chemical/Ingredient], mrna, messenger rna, messenger RNA (mRNA), Messenger ribonucleic acid (substance), Messenger RNA (substance), Messenger ribonucleic acid, messenger RNA
Swedish RNA, budbärar
Czech RNA informační, RNA messenger, informační RNA, mediátorová RNA, messenger RNA, mRNA
Finnish Lähetti-RNA
Russian IRNK, INFORMATSIONNAIA RNK, MRNK, RNK INFORMATSIONNAIA, RNK MATRICHNAIA, ИНФОРМАЦИОННАЯ РНК, ИРНК, МРНК, РНК ИНФОРМАЦИОННАЯ, РНК МАТРИЧНАЯ
Japanese 伝令RNA, テンプレートRNA, ポリ(A)テイル, ポリアデニレートmRNA, ノンポリアデニレートmRNA, ポリ(A)+mRNA, ポリアデニレートRNA, ポリ(A)+RNA, mRNAポリアデニレート, メッセンジャーRNA
Italian mRNA, RNA messaggero
Croatian RNK-VJESNIK
Polish mRNA, RNA informacyjny
Spanish mRNA, mARN, ácido ribonucleico mensajero (sustancia), ácido ribonucleico mensajero, ARN mensajero (sustancia), ARNm, ARN mensajero, ARN Mensajero
Portuguese RNAm, mRNA não Poliadenilado, ARNm, mRNA Poliadenilado, mRNA, RNA Mensageiro
French ARN messager, ARNm
German Messenger-RNA, RNA, Messenger-, mRNA
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Transfer RNA (C0035711)

Definition (NCI) A class of short adaptor RNAs that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. Each transfer RNA comprises a three-nucleotide sequence that is complementary to the triplet nucleotide coding sequence of an mRNA, conferring specificity to the amino acid being incorporated into the assembling protein.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) A class of short adaptor RNAs that transfers a specific amino acid to a growing polypeptide chain at the ribosomal site of protein synthesis during translation. Each transfer RNA comprises a three-nucleotide sequence that is complementary to the triplet nucleotide coding sequence of an mRNA, conferring specificity to the amino acid being incorporated into the assembling protein.
Definition (MSH) The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Definition (CSP) small ribonucleic acid molecules 73 to 93 nucleotides long, occurring in cells in about 30 varieties and functioning in translation; each variety carries a specific amino acid to a site specified by an RNA codon, binding to amino acid, ribosome, and to the codon via an anticodon region; all have numerous modified bases and extensive secondary structure.
Concepts Biologically Active Substance (T123) , Nucleic Acid, Nucleoside, or Nucleotide (T114)
MSH D012343
SnomedCT 28935008
English RNA, Transfer, Transfer RNA, tRNA, transfer RNA, Ribonucleic acids, transfer, transfer ribonucleic acid, RNA, Transfer [Chemical/Ingredient], transfer RNA (tRNA), trna, transfer rna, Transfer ribonucleic acid, Transfer RNA (substance), Transfer ribonucleic acid (substance), Triplet Codon-Amino Acid Adaptor
Swedish RNA, transfer
Czech RNA transferová
Finnish Siirtäjä-RNA
Russian TRNK, TRANSPORTNAIA RNK, RNK TRANSPORTNAIA, TRANSPORTNOI RNK SUPRESSOR, РНК ТРАНСПОРТНАЯ, ТРАНСПОРТНАЯ РНК, ТРАНСПОРТНОЙ РНК СУПРЕССОР, ТРНК
Japanese 転移RNA, サプレッサtRNA, 運搬RNA, 溶性RNA, アダプターRNA, トランスファーRNA
Italian tRNA, RNA transfer, RNA di trasferimento
Croatian RNK-PRENOSILAC
French ARN de transfert, ARNt
Polish RNA transportujący, tRNA, RNA przenoszący
Spanish tRNA, ácido ribonucleico de transferencia, ARN de transferencia (sustancia), ácido ribonucleico de transferencia (sustancia), ARNt, ARN de transferencia, ARN de Transferencia, ARN de Transporte
Portuguese ARNt, RNAt, RNA de Transferência, RNA Transportador, tRNA
German RNA, Transfer-, Transfer-RNA, tRNA
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Transcription, Genetic (C0040649)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The process of synthesizing messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA.
Definition (NCI) A genetic process in which single-stranded RNA with base sequence complementary to a region of plus strand DNA is synthesized by DNA-dependent RNA polymerases. Following the binding of RNA polymerase on DNA promoter regions, the RNA product is synthesized in a 5' to 3' direction, elongating RNA along the DNA strand as the polymerase proceeds, accompanied by unwinding and rewinding of the DNA template.
Definition (MSH) The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Definition (CSP) transfer of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA by DNA-directed RNA polymerase; includes reverse transcription and transcription of early and late genes expressed early in an organism's life cycle or during later development.
Concepts Genetic Function (T045)
MSH D014158
SnomedCT 10589004
English Transcription, Genetic, genetic transcription, TRANSCRIPTION GENET, GENET TRANSCRIPTION, Transcriptional, gene transcription, transcriptions, genes transcription, transcription, Genetic transcription, Genetic transcription (finding), Transcription, Gene Transcription, RNA Expression, Genetic Transcription
Swedish Transkription, genetisk
Czech transkripce genetická
Finnish Transkriptio
French Transcription, Transcription génétique
Russian TRANSKRIPTSIIA GENETICHESKAIA, RANNEGO GENA TRANSKRIPTSIIA, POZDNEGO GENA TRANSKRIPTSIIA, ПОЗДНЕГО ГЕНА ТРАНСКРИПЦИЯ, РАННЕГО ГЕНА ТРАНСКРИПЦИЯ, ТРАНСКРИПЦИЯ ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКАЯ
Japanese 情報転写-遺伝, 遺伝的転写, 後期遺伝子転写, 初期遺伝子転写, 遺伝情報転写, 転写-遺伝, 遺伝子転写, 転写
Croatian GENETSKA TRANSKRIPCIJA
Polish Transkrypcja genetyczna
Italian Trascrizione genica
Portuguese Transcrição Genética Tardia, Transcrição Genética Precoce, Transcrição Gênica, Transcrição Genética
Spanish transcripción genética (hallazgo), transcripción genética, Transcripción Genética
German Transkription, genetische
Dutch Genetische transcriptie, Transcriptie, genetische
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


Protein Biosynthesis (C0597295)

Definition (GO) The cellular metabolic process in which a protein is formed, using the sequence of a mature mRNA molecule to specify the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. Translation is mediated by the ribosome, and begins with the formation of a ternary complex between aminoacylated initiator methionine tRNA, GTP, and initiation factor 2, which subsequently associates with the small subunit of the ribosome and an mRNA. Translation ends with the release of a polypeptide chain from the ribosome. [GOC:go_curators]
Definition (NCI) Protein synthesis is the group of processes that are involved in generation of mature protein molecules. Although protein synthesis may involve translation alone in many cases, in others, it involves also protein folding, integration of prosthetic groups, glycosylation, methylation, phosphorylation, lipidation and any other process that may be involved in maturation of the polypeptide to the biologically active form.
Definition (MSH) The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Definition (CSP) ribosome mediated process by which polypeptide chains are synthesized, the aminoacid sequence being completely determined by the sequence of bases in a messenger RNA, which in turn is determined by the sequences of bases in the DNA of the gene from which it was transcribed.
Definition (CSP) anabolic formation of proteins in organisms or living cells; for more specific steps in the process of forming proteins, see related terms.
Concepts Molecular Function (T044)
MSH D014176
SnomedCT 112211004
English genetic translation, translation, protein biosynthesis, protein formation, protein anabolism, protein translation, PEPTIDE BIOSYN RIBOSOMAL, RIBOSOMAL PEPTIDE BIOSYN, PROTEIN BIOSYN, protein biosynthetic process, biosynthesis protein, protein synthesis, Translation, Genetic, Genetic Translation, mRNA Translation, Translation, mRNA, Translation, Protein, Genetic Translations, mRNA Translations, Protein Translation, TRANSLATION GENET, GENET TRANSLATION, Protein Biosynthesis, Proteins--Synthesis, Genetic translation, Genetic translation (finding), Biosynthesis, Protein, Biosynthesis, Ribosomal Peptide, Biosynthesis, Ribosomal Protein, Peptide Biosynthesis, Ribosomal, Protein Biosynthesis, Ribosomal, Protein Synthesis, Ribosomal, Ribosomal Peptide Biosynthesis, Ribosomal Protein Biosynthesis, Ribosomal Protein Synthesis, Synthesis, Ribosomal Protein, Protein Synthesis
Swedish Proteinbiosyntes
Czech peptidy - biosyntéza ribozomální, proteiny - biosyntéza
Finnish Proteiinien biosynteesi
French Biosynthèse protéique, Synthèse ribosomique des protéines, Synthèse ribosomale des protéines, Biosynthèse ribosomique des peptides, Biosynthèse ribosomale des peptides, Biosynthèse ribosomale des protéines, Biosynthèse ribosomique des protéines, Biosynthèse des peptides au niveau des ribosomes, Biosynthèse des protéines au niveau des ribosomes, Biosynthèse des protéines, Synthèse des protéines au niveau des ribosomes
Italian Biosintesi proteica ribosomiale, Biosintesi peptidica ribosomiale, Sintesi proteica ribosomiale, Biosintesi proteica
Russian BELKA BIOSINTEZ, TRANSLIATSIIA GENETICHESKAIA, BIOSINTEZ BELKA, ТРАНСЛЯЦИЯ ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКАЯ, БЕЛКА БИОСИНТЕЗ, БИОСИНТЕЗ БЕЛКА
Japanese 翻訳-遺伝的, 遺伝翻訳, 翻訳-遺伝子, 遺伝的翻訳, 遺伝子翻訳, 蛋白質生合成
Polish Biosynteza białka
Portuguese Tradução Genética, Tradução de Proteínas, Biossíntese de Proteína, Biossíntese Peptídica nos Ribossomos, Tradução Gênica, Biossíntese Proteica, Tradução do RNAm, Biossíntese Ribossômica de Peptídeos, Biossíntese de Proteínas
Spanish Traducción de Proteínas, Traducción Genética, Biosíntesis de Proteína, Biosíntesis Proteica, Traducción del ARNm, traducción genética (hallazgo), traducción genética, Biosíntesis Ribosómica de Péptidos, Biosíntesis de Proteínas
German Proteinbiosynthese, Peptidbiosynthese, ribosomale, Peptidsynthese, ribosomale, Proteinbiosynthese, ribosomale, Proteinsynthese, ribosomale, Proteinsynthese, Ribosomale Peptidbiosynthese, Ribosomale Peptidsynthese
Dutch Biosynthese, ribosomale eiwit-, Eiwitbiosynthese, Eiwitsynthese, ribosomale, Peptidebiosynthese, ribosomale, Synthese, ribosomale eiwit-
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


DNA Replication (C0598312)

Definition (GO) The cellular metabolic process in which a cell duplicates one or more molecules of DNA. DNA replication begins when specific sequences, known as origins of replication, are recognized and bound by initiation proteins, and ends when the original DNA molecule has been completely duplicated and the copies topologically separated. The unit of replication usually corresponds to the genome of the cell, an organelle, or a virus. The template for replication can either be an existing DNA molecule or RNA. [GOC:mah]
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The process by which a copy of the DNA in a cell is made before the cell divides.
Definition (NCI) The process by which the two strands of a DNA double helix separate, allowing each strand to act as a template for the synthesis of a complementary strand by specific base pairing. Includes autonomous but not virus replication.
Definition (NCI) DNA Synthesis is the polymeric linkage of deoxyribose moieties (with adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine side chains) by phosphate groups attached to their 5-prime and 3-prime sugar hydroxyls.
Definition (MSH) The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Definition (CSP) process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated in vivo, or studies of the natural process in vitro; for artificial synthesis, see NUCLEIC ACID CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS and its narrower terms.
Concepts Genetic Function (T045)
MSH D004261
SnomedCT 74256009
English DNA Replications, Replication, DNA, Replications, DNA, DNA replication (finding), Deoxyribonucleic acid replication (finding), Deoxyribonucleic acid replication, DNA biosynthesis, replication, deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis, DNA synthesis, dna replications, dna synthesis, dna replication, synthesis dna, DNA Replication, DNA replication, Replication, DNA Synthesis
Spanish replicación del ácido desoxirribonucleico, replicación del ADN, Duplicación del ADN, replicación del ácido desoxirribonucleico (hallazgo), Replicación del ADN
Swedish DNA-replikation
Czech DNA - replikace
Finnish DNA-monistus
French Réplication de l'ADN
Russian DNK REPLIKATSIIA, AVTONOMNAIA REPLIKATSIIA, АВТОНОМНАЯ РЕПЛИКАЦИЯ, ДНК РЕПЛИКАЦИЯ
Japanese 自律的複製, 自律複製, DNA複製, DNA複写
Croatian DNK, REPLIKACIJA
Polish Replikacja DNA
Portuguese Duplicação do DNA, Replicação do DNA
German DNA-Replikation
Italian Replicazione del DNA
Dutch DNA-replicatie, Replicatie, DNA-
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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