Infectious Disease Book


Parasitic Infection

Aka: Parasitic Infection, Neglected Parasitic Infection, Parasitic Disease, Parasite
  1. See Also
    1. Vector Borne Infection
    2. Pet-Borne Infection
    3. Parasitic Infections of the Skin
    4. Immigrant Child
    5. Immigration Health Exam
    6. Parasite Examination of the Stool
    7. Helminth
    8. Nodular Lymphangitis
  2. History
    1. See History from the Ill Returning Traveler
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. Parasites cause acute disease via two primary mechanisms
      1. Mass Effect
        1. High parasitic load related obstruction (Intestinal Obstruction)
      2. Host Inflammatory Response
        1. TH2 Pattern (release of inflammatory mediators such as Interleukins, Immunoglobulins, Mast Cell activation)
        2. Jarisch-Herheimer Reaction (antimicrobial agent induced reaction to dying organisms)
  4. Types: Ectoparasites
    1. See Arthropod
    2. Bedbug
    3. Lice
    4. Scabies
    5. Tick Bite
    6. Flea Bite
  5. Types: Endoparasites
    1. Protozoa
      1. Amoebiasis
      2. Babesiosis
      3. Giardiasis
      4. Leishmaniasis
      5. Malaria
      6. Toxoplasmosis
      7. Trichomoniasis
      8. Chagas Disease
    2. Helminths (worms)
      1. Tapeworms
        1. Echinococcosis
        2. Cysticercosis
      2. Flukes
        1. Schistosomiasis
        2. Swimmer's Itch
      3. Roundworms
        1. Lymphatic Filariasis
        2. Toxocariasis
        3. Pinworm
  6. Causes: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the U.S. (CDC focus area)
    1. Chagas Disease
    2. Neurocysticercosis
    3. Toxocariasis
    4. Toxoplasmosis
    5. Trichomoniasis
  7. Causes: Neglected tropical diseases (per CDC)
    1. Buruli ulcer
    2. Chagas Disease
    3. Cysticercosis
    4. Dengue Fever
    5. Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease)
    6. Echinococcosis
    7. Fascioliasis
    8. Human African Trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping Sickness)
    9. Leishmaniasis
    10. Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)
    11. Lymphatic Filariasis
    12. Onchocerciasis
    13. Rabies
    14. Schistosomiasis
    15. Soil-transmitted Helminths (STH) (Ascaris, Hookworm, and Whipworm)
    16. Trachoma
    17. Yaws
  8. Causes: Waterborne Parasites (common worldwide)
    1. See Waterborne Illness
    2. Amebiasis
    3. Cryptosporidiosis
    4. Giardiasis
    5. Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis)
    6. Schistosomiasis
  9. Differential Diagnosis
    1. See Altered Mental Status in Febrile Returning Traveler
    2. See Cutaneous Conditions in Febrile Returning Traveler
    3. See Dermatologic Manifestations in Returning Traveler
    4. See Fever in the Returning Traveler
    5. See Gastrointestinal Disease in Returning Traveler
    6. See International Medical Concerns
  10. Labs
    1. See specific agents
    2. See Fever in the Returning Traveler (includes lab testing)
    3. Complete Blood Count with differential
      1. May demonstrate Eosinophilia
  11. Complications: Organisms with serious secondary effects
    1. Anaphylaxis
      1. Echinococcus species (Hydatid Disease)
    2. Anemia
      1. Babesia species (Babesiosis)
      2. Diphyllobothirum latum (Fish Tapeworm)
      3. Necator americanus (New World Hookworm)
      4. Plasmodium species (Malaria) - Hemolytic Anemia
      5. Trichuris trichiura (Whipworm)
    3. Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
      1. Babesia species (Babesiosis)
      2. Pneumocystis carinii
      3. Plasmodium species (Malaria)
      4. Strongyloides stercoralis (Threadworm)
    4. Cardiomyopathy
      1. Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas Disease)
      2. Trichinella species (Trichinosis roundworm)
      3. Taenia solium (Cysticercosis)
      4. Entamoeba histolytica (Amoebiasis)
    5. Encephalitis
      1. Taenia solium (Cysticercosis)
      2. Plasmodium Falciparum (Malaria)
      3. Toxoplasma gondii (Toxoplasmosis)
      4. Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas Disease)
    6. Gastrointestinal Conditions
      1. See Serious Parasitic Gastrointestinal Complications
    7. Seizure Disorder
      1. Taenia solium (Neurocysticercosis)
      2. Entamoeba histolytica (Amoebiasis)
      3. Echinococcus species (Hydatid Disease)
  12. Prevention
    1. See Travel Preparation
    2. See Travel Immunization
    3. See Waterborne Illness Prevention
    4. See Foodborne Illness Prevention
    5. See Prevention of Vector-borne Infection
    6. See Malaria Prophylaxis
  13. Resources
    1. See Travel Resources
    2. CDC Neglected Parasitic Infections (U.S.)
    3. CDC Neglected Tropical Diseases (worldwide)
  14. References
    1. Wang and Nguyen (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(9):13-8

Parasitic Diseases (C0030499)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Parasites are living things that use other living things - like your body - for food and a place to live. You can get them from contaminated food or water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not.

Parasites range in size from tiny, one-celled organisms called protozoa to worms that can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies can lead to Giardia infections. Cats can transmit toxoplasmosis, which is dangerous for pregnant women. Others, like malaria, are common in other parts of the world.

If you are traveling, it's important to drink only water you know is safe. Prevention is especially important. There are no vaccines for parasitic diseases. Some medicines are available to treat parasitic infections.

Definition (MSH) Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Definition (CSP) infections or infestations with parasitic organisms; they are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D010272
SnomedCT 266171003, 17322007
English Disease, Parasitic, Diseases, Parasitic, Parasitic Disease, PARASITIC DIS, Parasitic Diseases [Disease/Finding], Disease;parasitic, parasitic diseases, parasitosis, disease caused by a parasite, infestation, parasitic infection, Parasitic diseases, Disease caused by parasite, Disease caused by parasite (disorder), Parasitic disease, Parasitosis, parasitic; disease, Disease caused by parasite, NOS, Parasitic disease, NOS, Parasitosis, NOS, Parasitic Diseases, Parasitic Disorders, Parasitic disease NOS, parasitic disease
Dutch parasitose, parasitair; aandoening, Parasitiaire ziekte, Parasitiaire ziekten, Ziekte, parasitiaire, Ziekten, parasitiaire
French Parasitose, Parasitoses, Infections parasitaires, Maladies parasitaires
German Parasitosis, Parasitäre Krankheiten
Italian Parasitosi, Malattie parassitarie
Portuguese Parasitose, Infecções Parasitárias, Infestações Parasitárias, Parasitismo, Parasitoses, Doenças Parasitárias
Spanish Parasitosis, enfermedad causada por parásitos, enfermedad parasitaria (trastorno), enfermedad parasitaria, parasitosis, Enfermedades Parasitarias
Japanese 寄生虫症, キセイチュウショウ
Swedish Parasitsjukdomar
Czech parazitární nemoci, Parazitóza, parazitární infekce
Finnish Loistaudit
Polish Choroby inwazyjne, Parazytozy, Choroby pasożytnicze, Inwazje pasożytnicze
Hungarian Parasitosis
Norwegian Parasittsykdommer, Parasittære sykdommer, Parasittiske sykdommer
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Parasitic infection (C0747256)

Definition (NCI) A successful invasion of a host by an organism that uses the host for food and shelter.(On-line Medical Dictionary)
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 17322007
Italian Infezione parassitaria, Infezione da parassiti NAS
Dutch parasieteninfectie NAO, infectie; parasitair, parasitair; infectie, infectie parasitair
French Parasitose SAI, INFECTION PARASITAIRE, Infection parasitique
German Infektion durch Parasiten NNB, INFEKTION DURCH PARASITEN, parasitaere Infektion
Portuguese Infecção parasitária NE, INFECCAO PARASITARIA, Infecção parasitária
Spanish Infección parasitaria NEOM, enfermedad infecciosa parasitaria, infección parasitaria, Infección parasitaria
Japanese 寄生虫感染, 寄生虫感染NOS, キセイチュウカンセンNOS, キセイチュウカンセン
English INFECTION PARASITIC, Parasitic infection NOS, Parasitic Disease, Infection parasitic, Parasitic infectious disease, infection; parasitic, parasitic; infection, Parasitic infection, NOS, Parasitic infectious disease, NOS, Parasitic infection, Parasitic Infection
Czech Parazitární infekce, Parazitární infekce NOS
Hungarian parazitás fertőzés, Parazitás fertőzés k.m.n.
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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