Gastroenterology Book


Perirectal Abscess

Aka: Perirectal Abscess, Anorectal Abscess
  1. See Also
    1. Fistula-in-ano
  2. Epidemiology
    1. More common in men
  3. Pathophysiology
    1. Infection of the 6-12 anal glands and crypts that surround the anus
      1. Occurs at mucocutaneous junction (Dentate Line)
    2. Contiguous spread of infection in to ischiorectal space
    3. Causative organisms: Mixed infection with fecal flora
      1. Bacteroides fragilis (most common in adults)
      2. Escherichia coli (most common in children)
  4. Types
    1. Perianal Abscess (60%)
      1. Local Perianal Abscess
      2. Immediately adjacent to anal verge
    2. Intersphincteric Abscess
      1. Proximal infection spread through the internal and external anal sphincter
    3. Ischiorectal Abscess (25%)
      1. Inferior to levator ani
      2. Two to 3 cm from anal verge
    4. Pelvirectal Abscess (Supralevator Abscess)
      1. Abscess superior to levator ani
      2. Complicated, deep abscess spread from perianal, intersphincter and Ischiorectal Abscesses
      3. May also spread from Pelvis (PID, Diverticulitis, Ruptured Appendicitis)
  5. Risk Factors
    1. Crohn's Disease
    2. Diabetes Mellitus
    3. Immunodeficiency
    4. Pregnancy
  6. Symptoms
    1. Constant, throbbing perianal pain
  7. Signs: General
    1. Palpable, tender mass in perianal area or in Rectum
    2. Drainage may be seen via perianal skin tract
      1. See Fistula-in-ano
  8. Imaging
    1. CT Pelvis
      1. Indicated for evaluation of deep space or complicated abscess
        1. Intersphincteric Abscess
        2. Ischiorectal Abscess
        3. Pelvirectal Abscess (Supralevator Abscess)
    2. MRI Pelvis
      1. Indicated for complicated Anal Fistula evaluation
  9. Management
    1. Surgical drainage is critical
      1. See types above for specific approach
    2. General Measures
      1. Stool Softeners (e.g. Colace)
      2. Sitz baths
      3. Frequent dressing changes
    3. Antibiotics usually not indicated
      1. Special Indications
        1. Systemic signs of infection
        2. Accompanying Cellulitis
        3. Valvular heart disease
        4. Diabetes Mellitus
        5. Immunocompromised patient
      2. Antibiotic coverage (Anaerobes, Gram Negatives)
        1. See Diverticulitis for nuanced antibiotic coverage (Perianal Abscess is treated the same)
        2. Example Regimen: Ciprofloxacin 500 mg PO bid and Metronidazole 500 mg PO tid
  10. Complications
    1. Fistula-in-ano (complicates up to 50% of Perirectal Abscess)
  11. References
    1. Goroll (2000) Primary Care Medicine, Lippincott, p. 426
    2. Jhun and Cologne in Herbert (2015) EM:Rap 15(9): 17-8
    3. Marx (2002) Rosen's Emergency Medicine, p. 1951
    4. Roberts (1998) Procedures, Saunders, p. 649-51
    5. Surrell in Pfenninger (1994) Procedures, Mosby, p. 969

Perirectal abscess (C0267566)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047) , Acquired Abnormality (T020)
ICD10 K61.1
SnomedCT 91669008
Italian Ascesso perirettale
Japanese 直腸周囲膿瘍, チョクチョウシュウイノウヨウ
English Perirectal abscesses, perirectal abscess (diagnosis), rectal abscess perirectal, perirectal abscess (physical finding), perirectal abscess, abscesses perirectal, abscess perirectal, peri-rectal abscess, peri rectal abscess, Perirectal abscess, Perirectal abscess (disorder), abscess; perirectal, pararectal; abscess, perirectal; abscess
Czech Perirektální absces
Hungarian perirectalis tályog
Dutch abces; perirectaal, pararectaal; abces, perirectaal; abces, perirectaal abces
Spanish absceso perirrectal (trastorno), absceso perirrectal, Absceso perirrectal
Portuguese Abcesso perirrectal
French Abcès périrectal
German perirektaler Abszess
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Anorectal abscess (C0267567)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD9 566
ICD10 K61, K61.2
SnomedCT 266530003, 155793007, 155796004, 197167001, 197160004, 75236001
Dutch anorectaal abces, abces anorectaal, abces van anorectale streken, abces; anorectaal, anorectaal; abces, Anorectaal abces, Abces van anaal en rectaal gebied
French Abcès anorectal, Abcès des régions anale et rectale
German Abszess anorektal, anorektaler Abszess, Abszess in der Anal- und Rektalregion, Anorektalabszess, Abszess des analen und rektalen Bereichs
Italian Ascesso anorettale, Ascesso anale e rettale
Portuguese Abcesso anorrectal, Abcesso das regiões anal e rectal
Spanish Absceso anorrectal, Absceso de las regiones anal y rectal, absceso anorrectal, SAI (trastorno), absceso anorrectal, SAI, absceso anorrectal (trastorno), absceso anorrectal
Japanese 肛門直腸膿瘍, コウモンチョクチョウノウヨウ
English Anorectal abscess NOS, Abscess anorectal, Anal & rectal abscess, abscess of anal and rectal regions, Abscess;anorectal, abscesses anorectal, anorectal abscess, abscess anorectal, Anal/rectal abscess, Anal/rectal abscess NOS, Anorectal abscess NOS (disorder), Abscess - anal/rectal, anorectal abscess (diagnosis), Anorectal abscess, Anorectal abscess (disorder), abscess; anorectal, anorectal; abscess, Abscess of anal and rectal regions
Czech Anorektální absces, Absces řitní a konečníkové krajiny
Korean 항문 및 직장부의 고름집(농양), 항문직장 고름집(농양)
Hungarian Analis és rectalis régió abscessusa, anorectalis tályog, anorectalis abscessus
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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