Gastroenterology Book

Traumatic Injury


Fulminant Hepatitis

Aka: Fulminant Hepatitis, Acute Hepatic Failure, Acute Liver Failure
  1. See Also
    1. Acute Hepatitis
  2. Definitions
    1. Fulminant Hepatitis
      1. Rapid onset and progression within weeks to liver necrosis with secondary Hepatic Encephalopathy and Coagulopathy
  3. Epidemiology
    1. Incidence: 2000 cases per year in the United States
  4. Pathophysiology
    1. Massive hepatic necrosis over the course of days to weeks
    2. Results in rapid progression from Jaundice to encephalopathy and Coagulopathy
    3. Multiorgan failure including Acute Renal Failure follows
  5. Types
    1. Timing based on pregression from Jaundice onset to encephalopathy
    2. Acute Liver Failure within 1 week
      1. Hyperacute liver failure
    3. Acute Liver Failure within 1-4 weeks
      1. Acute Liver Failure
    4. Acute Liver Failure over >5-8 weeks
      1. Subacute liver failure
  6. Causes
    1. Infectious Disease
      1. Viral Hepatitis
        1. Hepatitis A
        2. Hepatitis B
        3. Hepatitis C
        4. Hepatitis D
      2. Bacterial Infection
      3. Rickettsial infection
      4. Parasitic Infection
    2. Toxic Hepatitis
      1. Hepatotoxin exposure or other drug-induced cause
      2. Examples: Acetaminophen Overdose, Amanita muscaria ingestion
    3. Ischemia or shock
    4. Budd-Chiari Syndrome
    5. Idiopathic Chronic Active Hepatitis
    6. Wilson's Disease (Acute)
    7. Microvesicular Steatosis (Fat) Syndromes
      1. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver
      2. Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy
      3. Reye's Syndrome
  7. Symptoms
    1. Vomiting
    2. Upper Abdominal Pain
    3. Anorexia
    4. Jaundice
  8. Signs
    1. Neurologic changes (Hepatic Encephalopathy)
      1. Altered Level of Consciousness (Delirium, coma)
      2. Decerebrate rigidity (with severe cerebral edema)
      3. Personality change
    2. Jaundice
    3. Coagulopathy
      1. Bleeding (e.g. Gastrointestinal Bleeding)
    4. Acute Renal Failure (Hepatorenal Syndrome)
    5. Hypoglycemia
    6. Acute Pancreatitis
    7. Cardiopulmonary failure
    8. Ascites (due to Portal Hypertension)
  9. Labs
    1. See Acute Hepatitis
  10. Imaging
    1. See Acute Hepatitis
  11. Management
    1. Targeted therapy
      1. Delivery for pregnancy related Acute Liver Disease (especially Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy)
      2. Withdraw all known Hepatotoxins
      3. Treat known Hepatotoxin exposures
        1. Consult with poison control and hepatology
        2. Consider empiric N-Acetylcysteine in possible acute Toxic Hepatitis
          1. Effective beyond Acetaminophen Overdose or Amanita muscaria ingestion
          2. Duration typically longer (>24 hours) than for Acetaminophen Overdose (per poison control)
    2. Supportive care
      1. ABC Management
        1. Endotracheal Intubation often required
      2. Fluid and Electrolytes
        1. Volume expansion with crystalloid initially, but avoid Fluid Overload
          1. Consider Albumin 25% at 50-100 ml aliquot or Albumin 5% at 250 ml aliquot
          2. Liver failure is associated with hypoalbuminemia
        2. Correct acid-base status and Electrolyte abnormalities
        3. Monitor Serum Glucose
          1. Correct Hypoglycemia with IV D10 or D20 prn
        4. Hemorrhagic Shock
          1. Consider FFP or PCC4 for Coagulopathy and severe active bleeding
          2. INR is not an accurate measure of bleeding risk in the absence of Warfarin
        5. Vasopressors
          1. Consider Vasopressin as a first-line Vasopressor in liver failure
      3. Prevent GI Bleed
        1. H2 Blockers to maintain gastric pH >3.5
      4. Monitor for infection
        1. Complicated by Bacterial or fungal infection in 80% of cases
        2. Infection is often occult with non-specific changes in status (e.g. worsening encephalopathy)
        3. Routinely monitor urine, Chest XRay and other markers of infection
        4. Consider prophylactic antibiotics (e.g. Ceftriaxone)
      5. Hepatic Encephalopathy
        1. Encephalopathy may be more severe in Acute Liver Failure than in longstanding Cirrhosis
        2. Obtain Head CT and Ocular Ultrasound for Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter
        3. Consider Endotracheal Intubation
        4. Control systemic Hypertension
        5. Consider evaluation of Intracranial Pressure (questionable efficacy)
          1. Lower Intracranial Pressure with Mannitol IV prn (while replacing urine losses)
    3. Transfer to center capable of performing liver transplant (if potential candidate)
      1. Liver Transplant Indications
        1. Grade 3-4 Encephalopathy
        2. Adverse prognostic indicators as above
  12. Prognosis: Factors associated with poor outcomes
    1. Advanced age
    2. Halothane exposure
    3. Hepatitis C
    4. Coma (80% Mortality)
    5. Rapid decrease in liver span
    6. Respiratory Failure
    7. Marked ProTime prolongation
    8. Factor V Level <20%
  13. References
    1. Swaminathan and Weingart in Herbert (2020) EM:Rap 20(10):1-2
    2. Swencki (2015) Crit Dec Emerg Med 29(11):2-10

Liver Failure, Acute (C0162557)

Definition (MSHCZE) Rychlý nástup akutního SELHÁNÍ JATER, známého také jako fulminantní jaterní selhání, je forma onemocnění způsobená těžkým poškozením jater nebo masivní ztrátou HEPATOCYTŮ. Je to charakteristické při náhlém rozvoji jaterní dysfunkce a při ŽLOUTENCE. Akutní selhání jater se může vyvinout až v cerebrální dysfunkci či dokonce v jaterní kóma, což závisí na etiologii, která může zahrnovat jaterní ischémii, otravu léky, maligní infiltraci a virové hepatitidy jako např. potransfúzní hepatitidu typu B a C (HEPATITIDA B, HEPATITIDA C). R
Definition (NCI) Rapid deterioration of liver function causing encephalopathy and coagulopathy. It results from damage to the liver parenchyma usually secondary to acetaminophen overdose or viral infections.
Definition (MSH) A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D017114
SnomedCT 266536009, 155808003, 197270009, 235884008
English Hepatic Failure, Acute, Liver Failure, Acute, Failure, Acute Hepatic, Failure, Acute Liver, FHF - Fulminant hepat failure, Acute Liver Failure, Acute Hepatic Failure, Liver Failure, Acute [Disease/Finding], fulminant hepatic failure, fulminate liver failure, acute failure hepatic, acute liver failure, acute failure liver, failure hepatic acute, liver acute failure alf, fulminant liver failure, hepatic fulminant failure, acute hepatic failure (diagnosis), hepatic failure acute, acute hepatic failure, Hepatic failure - acute, Acute hepatic failure, Acute liver failure, Fulminant hepatic failure, ALF - Acute liver failure, FHF - Fulminant hepatic failure, Acute hepatic failure (disorder), Fulminant hepatic failure (disorder), Fulminating Hepatic Failure, Fulminating Liver Failure, Hepatic Failure, Fulminant, Liver Failure, Fulminant, Fulminant Hepatic Failure, Fulminant Hepatic Failures, Fulminant Liver Failure, Fulminant Liver Failures, Fulminating Hepatic Failures, Fulminating Liver Failures, Hepatic Failure, Fulminating, Hepatic Failures, Fulminant, Hepatic Failures, Fulminating, Liver Failure, Fulminating, Liver Failures, Fulminant, Liver Failures, Fulminating
Dutch acuut leverfalen, fulminant leverfalen, Leverfalen, acuut, Acute leverinsufficiëntie, Insufficiëntie, acute lever-, Acuut leverfalen, Fulminante leverinsufficiëntie, Leverinsufficiëntie, fulminante
French Insuffisance hépatique aiguë, Défaillance hépatique aiguë, Défaillance hépatique aigüe, Défaillance hépatique fulminante
German fulminantes Leberversagen, akutes Leberversagen, Leberversagen, akutes
Portuguese Insuficiência hepática fulminante, Insuficiência hepática aguda, Insuficiência Hepática Grave Aguda, Insuficiência do Fígado Grave Aguda, Insuficiência Hepática Fulminante, Falência Hepática Aguda, Falência Hepática Fulminante
Spanish Insuficiencia hepática aguda, Insuficiencia hepática fulminante, Fallo hepático agudo, falla hepática aguda, insuficiencia hepática aguda (trastorno), insuficiencia hepática aguda, insuficiencia hepática fulminante (trastorno), insuficiencia hepática fulminante, Insuficiencia Fulminante del Hígado, Insuficiencia Hepática Fulminante, Fallo Hepático Agudo, Fallo Hepático Fulminante
Swedish Leversvikt, akut
Japanese ゲキショウカンフゼン, キュウセイカンフゼン, 肝不全-急性, 肝疾患-劇症, 劇症肝不全, 肝不全-劇症, 劇症肝疾患, 劇症型肝不全, 急性肝不全
Finnish Akuutti maksan vajaatoiminta
Czech Fulminantní jaterní selhání, Akutní jaterní selhání, Akutní selhání jater, akutní jaterní selhání, akutní selhání jater, játra - selhání akutní
Italian Insufficienza epatica fulminante, Insufficienza epatica acuta
Polish Niewydolność wątroby ostra, Niewydolność wątroby o przebiegu piorunującym
Hungarian Acut májelégtelenség, Fulminans májelégtelenség
Norwegian Akutt leversvikt, Leversvikt, akutt
Croatian Jetrena insuficijencija, akutna
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

Fulminant hepatitis (C0302809)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 427044009
English HEPATITIS FULMINANT, Fulminant hepatitis (disorder), Fulminant hepatitis, fulminant hepatitis (diagnosis), fulminant hepatitis, hepatitis fulminant, Hepatitis fulminant
Italian Epatite fulminante
Japanese 劇症肝炎, ゲキショウカンエン
Spanish hepatitis fulminante (trastorno), hepatitis fulminante, HEPATITIS FULMINANTE, Hepatitis fulminante
French HEPATITE FULMINANTE, Hépatite fulminante
Portuguese HEPATITE FULMINANTE, Hepatite fulminante
German HEPATITIS FULMINANT VERLAUFEND, Hepatitis fulminant verlaufend
Czech Fulminantní hepatitida
Hungarian Fulminans hepatitis
Dutch hepatitis fulminant
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)

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