Ophthalmology Book

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Chemical Eye Injury

Aka: Chemical Eye Injury, Eye Chemical Burn, Ocular Chemical Burn
  1. See Also
    1. Eye Trauma
  2. Definitions
    1. Chemical Eye Injury
      1. Eye Injury via strong acids or bases in liquid, powder or gas form
  3. Epidemiology
    1. Common Work-Related Eye Injury
    2. Also occurs with home cleaning products (e.g. bleach)
  4. Risk Factors
    1. Strong acids or bases
      1. Alkali are more common in home cleansers
      2. Alkali penetrate the eye surface rapidly
    2. Longer duration of exposure
    3. Most eye damaging agents
      1. Strong bases/alkali such as bleach (pH > 10, associated with worse outcomes)
      2. Hydrofluoric acid (semiconductor production)
  5. Pathophysiology
    1. Damage to Conjunctiva and Cornea
    2. Ischemia may result from adjacent injury to Conjunctival or Scleral vessels
      1. May cause Corneal scarring and opacification
  6. Symptoms
    1. Severe Eye Pain
    2. Photophobia
    3. Blurred Vision
    4. Eye Foreign Body sensation
  7. Signs
    1. Eyelid burn
      1. Reflex blepharospasm may interfere with exam
    2. Conjunctival or Corneal color
      1. Red Eye with Conjunctival injection (most common)
      2. Corneal Epithelium disruption (Fluorescein stain uptake)
      3. White eye (Corneal clouding) suggests severe Eye Injury with ischemia
  8. Exam
    1. Litmus paper (acid-base pH paper) applied to Conjunctival fornix (where bulbar and palpebral Conjunctiva meet)
    2. Visual Acuity
    3. Observe eye appearance for injury
      1. Corneal Opacification or clouding
      2. Conjunctival injection
    4. Observe for Eyelid Swelling or Burn Injury
    5. Fluorescein stain for Corneal epithelial defect
  9. Grading: Roper-Hall Classification
    1. Grade 1: Mild Corneal epithelial damage
    2. Grade 2: Corneal Stromal haze but maintained visible iris details
    3. Grade 3: Corneal Stromal haze obscures iris details
    4. Grade 4: Cornea completely Opaque, completely blocking any view of iris
    5. Roper-Hall (1965) Trans Ophthalmol Soc 85:631-53 [PubMed]
  10. Management: Immediate Eye Irrigation to Neutral pH (7.0 to 7.5)
    1. See Eye Irrigation
    2. Ocular Emergency requiring immediate management
    3. Apply Topical Anesthetic to eye or add Lidocaine to saline irrigation bag (see Eye Irrigation)
    4. Immediate and Copious Eye Irrigation for at least 2 liters irrigant over 30 minutes
      1. See Eye Irrigation
      2. Do not delay irrigation for exam, contact removal, or sterile fluid
    5. Measure pH of ocular surface 5 minutes after initial irrigation
      1. Further irrigation until pH neutralized to 7.0 to 7.5
      2. Recheck pH to confirm stability at 30 minutes
    6. Sweep upper and lower lids with a moist cotton swab
      1. Removes any retained crystallized chemical particles
  11. Management: Following Irrigation to neutral pH
    1. Precautions
      1. Do not patch eye (increased risk of infection)
    2. Topical agents: All chemical eye burns with any Corneal Epithelial Disruption, Fluorescein uptake
      1. Antibiotic eye drops (e.g. Erythromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin, Tobramycin)
      2. Preservative-free artificial tears
    3. Topical agents: Grade 3-4 chemical burns
      1. Add in combination with Topical Antibiotics and artificial tears described above
      2. Topical Corticosteroids (e.g. Prednisolone) or in combination with antibiotic (e.g. Tobradex)
      3. Consider Cycloplegic agent (e.g. Cyclopentolate or Cyclogyl, Scopolamine 0.25%)
    4. Disposition
      1. Recheck within 24 hours
      2. Recheck Intraocular Pressure, Corneal surface, lid injury
    5. Indications for emergent or urgent ophthalmology referral
      1. Strong alkali or acid burn
      2. Abnormal Visual Acuity
      3. Severe Eye Pain
      4. Marked Conjunctival swelling or Chemosis
      5. Corneal epithelial defect (Fluorescein uptake)
      6. Cloudy Cornea (Corneal Opacification, Roper-Hall Grades 2-4)
  12. Prognosis
    1. Best prognosis with early copious irrigation and Grade 1-2 injuries
    2. Corneal Opacity or ischemia is associated with worse prognosis and longterm Decreased Visual Acuity
  13. Resources
    1. Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
      1. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov
  14. References
    1. Trobe (2013) Physicians Guide to Eye Care, p. 89-92
    2. Gelston (2020) Am Fam Physician 102(9):539-45 [PubMed]
    3. Gelston (2013) Am Fam Physician 88(8): 515-9 [PubMed]
    4. Lusk (1996) AAOHN J 47:80-7 [PubMed]
    5. Pokhrel (2007) Am Fam Physician 76:829-36 [PubMed]

Chemical burns of eye (C0740445)

Concepts Injury or Poisoning (T037)
Japanese 眼部化学熱傷, ガンブカガクネッショウ
Czech Chemické popálení oka
English Chemical burns of eye, chemical eye burns, burn chemical eye, chemical burn eye, eye chemical burns, burn chemical eyes, chemical burns of eye, chemical eye burn, eye chemical burn, burns chemical eyes, chemical burn of eye, chemical burn of eye (diagnosis), Burn;chemical;eye, chemical burn to eye
Italian Ustioni chimiche dell'occhio
Hungarian Szem kémiai égése
Portuguese Queimadura do olho por químicos
Spanish Quemadura por sustancias químicas del ojo
Dutch chemische brandwonden van het oog
French Brûlures chimiques de l'oeil
German chemische Vebrennungen des Auges
Sources
Derived from the NIH UMLS (Unified Medical Language System)


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