Cardiovascular Medicine Book


  • Funduscopic Changes in Hypertension


Funduscopic Changes in Hypertension

Aka: Funduscopic Changes in Hypertension, Retinal Changes in Hypertension, Keith-Wagner
  1. See Also
    1. Hypertension
  2. Technique
    1. Dilate eye (Mydriacyl)
  3. Grading of Hypertensive funduscopic changes
    1. GP 1
      1. Spasm of Retinal vessels
    2. GP 2
      1. Constriction and sclerosis of Retinal arterioles
      2. Arteriovenous Nicking (AV Nicking) of Retinal vessels
    3. GP 3
      1. Vascular changes
      2. Hemorrhages
      3. Exudates
    4. GP 4
      1. Above changes & Papilledema

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