III. Pathophysiology

  1. Parasites cause acute disease via two primary mechanisms
    1. Mass Effect
      1. High parasitic load related obstruction (Intestinal Obstruction)
    2. Host Inflammatory Response
      1. TH2 Pattern (release of inflammatory mediators such as Interleukins, Immunoglobulins, Mast Cell activation)
      2. Jarisch-Herheimer Reaction (antimicrobial agent induced reaction to dying organisms)

IV. Types: Ectoparasites

  1. See Arthropod
  2. Bedbug
  3. Lice
  4. Scabies
  5. Tick Bite
  6. Flea Bite

VI. Causes: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the U.S. (CDC focus area)

VII. Causes: Neglected tropical diseases (per CDC)

  1. Buruli ulcer
  2. Chagas Disease
  3. Cysticercosis
  4. Dengue Fever
  5. Dracunculiasis (Guinea Worm Disease)
  6. Echinococcosis
  7. Fascioliasis
  8. Human African Trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping Sickness)
  9. Leishmaniasis
  10. Leprosy (Hansen's Disease)
  11. Lymphatic Filariasis
  12. Onchocerciasis
  13. Rabies
  14. Schistosomiasis
  15. Soil-transmitted Helminths (STH) (Ascaris, Hookworm, and Whipworm)
  16. Trachoma
  17. Yaws

VIII. Causes: Waterborne Parasites (common worldwide)

  1. See Waterborne Illness
  2. Amebiasis
  3. Cryptosporidiosis
  4. Giardiasis
  5. Guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis)
  6. Schistosomiasis

X. Labs

  1. See specific agents
  2. See Fever in the Returning Traveler (includes lab testing)
  3. Complete Blood Count with differential
    1. May demonstrate Eosinophilia

XIII. Resources

  1. See Travel Resources
  2. CDC Neglected Parasitic Infections (U.S.)
    1. http://www.cdc.gov/parasites/npi/index.html
  3. CDC Neglected Tropical Diseases (worldwide)
    1. http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/ntd/

XIV. References

  1. Wang and Nguyen (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(9):13-8

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Related Studies

Ontology: Parasitic Diseases (C0030499)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Parasites are living things that use other living things - like your body - for food and a place to live. You can get them from contaminated food or water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not.

Parasites range in size from tiny, one-celled organisms called protozoa to worms that can be seen with the naked eye. Some parasitic diseases occur in the United States. Contaminated water supplies can lead to Giardia infections. Cats can transmit toxoplasmosis, which is dangerous for pregnant women. Others, like malaria, are common in other parts of the world.

If you are traveling, it's important to drink only water you know is safe. Prevention is especially important. There are no vaccines for parasitic diseases. Some medicines are available to treat parasitic infections.

Definition (MSH) Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. They are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Definition (CSP) infections or infestations with parasitic organisms; they are often contracted through contact with an intermediate vector, but may occur as the result of direct exposure.
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D010272
SnomedCT 266171003, 17322007
English Disease, Parasitic, Diseases, Parasitic, Parasitic Disease, PARASITIC DIS, Parasitic Diseases [Disease/Finding], Disease;parasitic, parasitic diseases, parasitosis, disease caused by a parasite, infestation, parasitic infection, Parasitic diseases, Disease caused by parasite, Disease caused by parasite (disorder), Parasitic disease, Parasitosis, parasitic; disease, Disease caused by parasite, NOS, Parasitic disease, NOS, Parasitosis, NOS, Parasitic Diseases, Parasitic Disorders, Parasitic disease NOS, parasitic disease
Dutch parasitose, parasitair; aandoening, Parasitiaire ziekte, Parasitiaire ziekten, Ziekte, parasitiaire, Ziekten, parasitiaire
French Parasitose, Parasitoses, Infections parasitaires, Maladies parasitaires
German Parasitosis, Parasitäre Krankheiten
Italian Parasitosi, Malattie parassitarie
Portuguese Parasitose, Infecções Parasitárias, Infestações Parasitárias, Parasitismo, Parasitoses, Doenças Parasitárias
Spanish Parasitosis, enfermedad causada por parásitos, enfermedad parasitaria (trastorno), enfermedad parasitaria, parasitosis, Enfermedades Parasitarias
Japanese 寄生虫症, キセイチュウショウ
Swedish Parasitsjukdomar
Czech parazitární nemoci, Parazitóza, parazitární infekce
Finnish Loistaudit
Polish Choroby inwazyjne, Parazytozy, Choroby pasożytnicze, Inwazje pasożytnicze
Hungarian Parasitosis
Norwegian Parasittsykdommer, Parasittære sykdommer, Parasittiske sykdommer

Ontology: Parasitic infection (C0747256)

Definition (NCI) A successful invasion of a host by an organism that uses the host for food and shelter.(On-line Medical Dictionary)
Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
SnomedCT 17322007
Italian Infezione parassitaria, Infezione da parassiti NAS
Dutch parasieteninfectie NAO, infectie; parasitair, parasitair; infectie, infectie parasitair
French Parasitose SAI, INFECTION PARASITAIRE, Infection parasitique
German Infektion durch Parasiten NNB, INFEKTION DURCH PARASITEN, parasitaere Infektion
Portuguese Infecção parasitária NE, INFECCAO PARASITARIA, Infecção parasitária
Spanish Infección parasitaria NEOM, enfermedad infecciosa parasitaria, infección parasitaria, Infección parasitaria
Japanese 寄生虫感染, 寄生虫感染NOS, キセイチュウカンセンNOS, キセイチュウカンセン
English INFECTION PARASITIC, Parasitic infection NOS, Parasitic Disease, Infection parasitic, Parasitic infectious disease, infection; parasitic, parasitic; infection, Parasitic infection, NOS, Parasitic infectious disease, NOS, Parasitic infection, Parasitic Infection
Czech Parazitární infekce, Parazitární infekce NOS
Hungarian parazitás fertőzés, Parazitás fertőzés k.m.n.