II. Definitions

  1. Conjugate Gaze
    1. Movement of both eyes in the same direction at the same time
  2. Ophthalmoplegia
    1. Weakness or paralysis of one or more Extraocular Movement Muscles
    2. Results from either a Muscle disoder or nerve palsy

III. Background

  1. Three different nerves rotate the eye's axis (line of sight)
    1. Oculomotor Nerve (CN 3)
    2. Trochlear Nerve (CN 4)
    3. Abducens Nerve (CN 6)
  2. Oculomotor Nerve (CN 3) innervates 3 of the 5 eye Muscles
    1. Allows the eye to look up, down and medially
    2. CN 3 Palsy results in the eye is oriented 'down and out' (functionality of the 2 remaining nerves)
  3. Trochlear Nerve (CN 4) innervates the superior oblique Muscle
    1. Pulley system (trochlea) to rotate the eye downward and laterally
  4. Abducens Nerve (CN 6) innervates the lateral rectus Muscle
    1. Rotates the eye laterally
  5. Conjugate Gaze (alignment of both eyes) is the most complex Extraocular Movement
    1. Requires one eye to look laterally (CN 6) while the other eye looks medially (CN 3)
    2. Synchrony requires coordination from several centers
      1. Contralateral cerebral cortex (Brodmann Areas 17,18,19 and 8)
      2. Lateral Gaze Center (Pontine Paramedian Reticular Formation or PPRF)
      3. Signals to ipsilateral CN 6
      4. Signals to contralateral CN 3 (via Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus)

IV. Anatomy: Innervation

  1. Cerebral Cortex
    1. Voluntary Conjugate Gaze (Brodmann's Area 8)
    2. Involuntary Conjugate Gaze (Areas 17-19)
  2. Cranial Nerves
    1. CN 3 (nucleus in Midbrain)
    2. CN 4 (nucleus in Midbrain)
    3. CN 6 (nucleus in pons)
  3. Nucleii and Pathways
    1. Lateral Gaze Center (Pontine Paramedian Reticular Formation, Paraabducens Nucleus)
      1. Responsible for horizontal gaze and saccade eye movements
      2. Facilitates Conjugate Gaze by synapsing with contralateral fibers for coordinated eye movements
    2. Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus (MLF)
      1. Transmits signals between CN 3 and CN 6 to coordinate eye movements (Conjugate Gaze)
      2. Dysfunctional in Internuclear Ophthalmoplegia (e.g. Multiple Sclerosis, esp. if bilateral)
      3. Example of normal Conjugate Gaze pathway via Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus
        1. Cortical signal from voluntary gaze center directs left eye to look left
        2. Left eye CN 6 (lateral rectus) fires for the left eye to look left
        3. CN 6 signals Synapse with the Lateral Gaze Center
        4. Signals are transmitted via Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus across midline to contralateral CN 3
        5. Medial rectus directs the right eye to also look left (adduct to look medially)

V. Anatomy: Extraocular Muscles: Innervated by CN 3 with 2 exceptions

  1. Medial Range of Motion
    1. Medial Rectus (Cranial Nerve III)
  2. Lateral Range of Motion
    1. Lateral Rectus (Cranial Nerve VI)
  3. Upward Range of Motion
    1. Superior Rectus (Cranial Nerve III)
    2. Inferior Oblique (Cranial Nerve III)
  4. Downward Range of Motion
    1. Inferior Rectus (Cranial Nerve III)
    2. Superior Oblique (Cranial Nerve IV)

VI. Anatomy: Images

  1. See Neurologic Anatomy of the Eye
  2. eye_eom.png
  3. eyeOculomotorGrayBB785.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  4. eyeOculomotorGrayBB889.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)

VII. Pathophysiology

VIII. References

  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Neuroanatomy, Medmaster, p. 40-53
  2. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 114, 126

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies

Ontology: Oculomotor nerve structure (C0028864)

Definition (FMA) Cranial nerve which connects the midbrain to the extra-ocular and intra-ocular muscles.
Definition (UWDA) Cranial nerve which connects the midbrain to the extra-ocular and intra-ocular muscles.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The third cranial nerve.
Definition (MSH) The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
Definition (CSP) third cranial nerve; sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye; sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation; motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D009802
SnomedCT 56193007
English Nerve, Oculomotor, Nerves, Oculomotor, Oculomotor Nerve, Oculomotor Nerves, Cranial Nerve III, Cranial Nerve, Third, Cranial Nerves, Third, Nerve, Third Cranial, Nerves, Third Cranial, Third Cranial Nerve, Third Cranial Nerves, cranial nerve III, Oculomotor nerve [III], Nervus oculomotorius [III], Oculomotor nerve tree, cranial nerve iii, oculomotor nerves, cranial iii nerve, Cranial Nerve IIIs, third cranial nerve, 3n, oculomotor nerve, Nervus oculomotorius, OCULOMOTOR NERVE, Nervus Oculomotorius, Nerve IIIs, Oculomotorius, Nervus, Nerve III, Third cranial nerve, Oculomotor nerve, Cranial nerve III, Oculomotor nerve structure (body structure), Oculomotor nerve structure, Oculomotor nerve, NOS
French Troisième paire crânienne, Nerf oculomoteur, Nerf crânien III, Nerf moteur oculaire commun, Troisième nerf crânien, Nerf oculo-moteur, Nerf crânien 3
Swedish Ögonrörelsenerv
Czech nervus oculomotorius, okohybný nerv, III. hlavový nerv
Finnish Silmän liikehermo
German DRITTER HIRNNERV, Hirnnerv III, III. Hirnnerv, Nervus oculomotorius
Italian Nervo cranico III, Terzo nervo cranico, Nervo oculomotore
Latvian Acs kustību nervs
Polish Nerw okoruchowy, Nerw III
Japanese 動眼神経, 眼球運動神経, 第3脳神経
Norwegian 3. hjernenerve, Nervus oculomotorius, Øyets bevegelsesnerve, Okulomotorisk nerve, Hjernenerve 3
Spanish III Par Craneal, Nervio Craneal III, III par craneal, estructura del nervio oculomotor (estructura corporal), estructura del nervio oculomotor, nervio craneal III, nervio motor ocular, nervio oculomotor, tercer par craneal, tercer par craneano, III Nervio Craneal, Nervio Oculomotor, Tercer Nervio Craneal
Portuguese III Par Craniano, III Nervo Craniano, Nervo Craniano III, Nervo Oculomotor, Terceiro Nervo Craniano
Dutch IIIe hersenzenuw, Nervus cranialis III, Nervus oculomotorius

Ontology: Ophthalmoplegia (C0029089)

Definition (MSHCZE) Oftalmoplegie – ochrnutí očních svalů (vnitřních či zevních). (cit. Velký lékařský slovník online, 2013 http://lekarske.slovniky.cz/ )
Definition (NCI) Weakness or paralysis of at least one of the muscles controlling the movement of the eye. It results from degeneration of the muscles or the neural pathways involved in the eye movement. Representative disorders causing ophthalmoplegia include ocular myopathies and multiple sclerosis.
Definition (MSH) Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.
Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
MSH D009886
SnomedCT 155196009, 267745004, 16110005
English Oculomotor Paralysis, Ophthalmoplegias, EYE MUSCLE PARALYSIS, OCULOMOTOR PARALYSIS, OPHTHALMOPLEGIA, Paralysis, Oculomotor, oculomotor paralysis, Oculomotor paralysis, Extraocular muscle paralysis, ophthalmoplegia, ophthalmoplegia (diagnosis), Paralysis extraocular muscle (s), Eye muscle paralysis, Muscle paralysis eye, Paralysis oculomotor, Ophthalmoplegia (NOS), Ophthalmoplegia NOS, Ophthalmoplegia [Disease/Finding], eye muscles paralysis, eye muscle paralysis, Ophthalmoplegia (disorder), eye muscle; paralysis, paralysis; eye muscle, Ophthalmoplegia, NOS, Ophthalmoplegia
French OPHTALMOPLEGIE, PARALYSIE OCULOMOTRICE, Paralysie musculaire d'un oeil, Paralysie du muscle oculaire, Ophtalmoplégie SAI, Paralysie de muscles extraoculaires, Ophtalmoplégie, Paralysie oculomotrice, Paralysie oculo-motrice
Portuguese OFTALMOPLEGIA, PARALISIA OCULOMOTORA, Oftalmoplegia NE, Paralisia de nervo oculomotor comum, Paralisia de músculo ocular, Paralisia de músculo(s) extrínseco(s) do olho, PARALISIA DA MUSCULATURA OCULAR, Oftalmoplegia, Paralisia Oculomotora
Spanish OFTALMOPLEJIA, PARALISIS OCULOMOTORA, Parálisis del músculo (s) extraocular, Parálisis de la músculatura ocular, Parálisis oculomotora, Parálisis de músculo ocular, Oftalmoplejia NEOM, Oftalmoplejia (NEOM), PARALISIS MUSCULATURA OCULAR, oftalmoplejía (trastorno), oftalmoplejía, Oftalmoplejia, Oftalmoplejía, Parálisis Oculomotora
German OPHTHALMOPLEGIE, Laehmung Okulomotorius, Okulomotorius-Laehmung, Augenmuskellaehmung, Laehmung der aeusseren Augenmuskeln, Muskellaehmung, Auge, Ophthalmoplegie NNB, Ophthalmoplegie (NNB), AUGENMUSKELLAEHMUNG, OKULOMOTORIUSLAEHMUNG, Ophthalmoplegie, Augenmuskellähmung
Dutch paralyse extra-oculaire spier(en), oftalmoplegie (NAO), spier paralyse oog, oogspier paralyse, paralyse oculomotorisch, oculomotorische paralyse, oftalmoplegie NAO, oogspier; paralyse, paralyse; oogspier, oftalmoplegie, Oftalmoplegie, Paralyse, oculomotorische
Italian Paralisi di muscolo oculare, Oftalmoplegia (NAS), Oftalmoplegia NAS, Paralisi di muscolo/i extraoculare/i, Paralisi dell'oculomotore, Paralisi oculomotoria, Oftalmoplegia
Japanese 眼筋麻痺NOS, 外眼筋麻痺, 眼筋麻痺(NOS), ドウガンシンケイマヒ, ガンキンマヒNOS, ガイガンキンマヒ, ガンキンマヒ, 眼筋麻痺, 動眼神経麻痺
Swedish Ögonförlamning
Czech oftalmoplegie, Paralýza očního svalu, Svalová paralýza oka, Oftalmoplegie NOS, Okulomotorická obrna, Extraokulární svalová paralýza, Obrna okulomotoriu, Oftalmoplegie (NOS), Oftalmoplegie, ophthalmoplegia
Finnish Oftalmoplegia
Polish Oftalmoplegia
Hungarian Oculomotorius bénulás, Ophthalmoplegia (K.m.n.), Szem izom paralysis, Ophthalmoplegia k.m.n., Szemizom paralysis, Paralysis, extraocularis izom/izmok, Ophthalmoplegia, Oculomotorius paralysis
Norwegian Oftalmoplegi, Okulomotorisk paralyse, Øyemuskellammelse

Ontology: Medial longitudinal fasciculus (C0152373)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
SnomedCT 28390009
English medial longitudinal fasciculus, medial longitudinal bundle, medial longitudinal fascicle, Fasciculus longitudinalis dorsalis (Riley), Fasciculus longitudinalis posterior (posticus), Tractus longitudinalis medialis, Fasciculus longitudinalis medialis, Fasciculus commissurae posterioris, Medial longitudinal fasciculus structure (body structure), Medial longitudinal fasciculus structure, Medial longitudinal fasciculus, NOS, Medial longitudinal fasciculus, MLF-Medial longitudinal fasciculus
Spanish estructura del fascículo longitudinal medio (estructura corporal), estructura del fascículo longitudinal medio, fascículo longitudinal medio

Ontology: Conjugate gaze (C0522329)

Concepts Organ or Tissue Function (T042)
SnomedCT 103255006
English Conjugate gaze, Conjugate gaze (finding)
Spanish mirada conjugada (hallazgo), mirada conjugada

Ontology: Paramedian nucleus of pons (C2332972)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
English Paramedian nucleus of pons, Nucleus paramedianus pontis

Ontology: Ocular motility disorders (SMQ) (C2939109)

Definition (MDR) Ocular motility disorders include gaze palsy, internuclear ophthalmoplegia, oculomotor nerve lesions, trochlear nerve lesions, abducens nerve lesions, diabetic ophthalmoplegias, painful ophthalmoplegias, myesthenia gravis, and ocular myopathies. Extraocular muscles controlling eye movements are medial and lateral rectus, inferior and superior rectus, and superior and inferior oblique. Cranial nerve palsies resulting in eye movement disorders are: Oculomotor nerve palsy - may be caused by brain injury, aneurysm, hemorrhage, tumor, or diabetes; affected eye turns outward when the unaffected eye looks straight ahead; this causes double vision. Trochlear nerve palsy - often has no identified cause but may be due to head injury; both eyes or only one may be affected; affected eye is not able to turn inward or down; double vision results. Abducens nerve palsy - may have a number of causes including head injury, tumors, multiple sclerosis, aneurysms, CNS infection, etc.; affected eye cannot turn outward.
Definition (MDRDUT) Motiliteitsstoornissen van het oog zijn onder meer blikverlamming, internucleaire oftalmoplegie, oculomotorische zenuwletsels, nervus trochlearis-letsels, nervus abducens-letsels, diabetische oftalmoplegieën, pijnlijke oftalmoplegieën, myasthenia gravis en myopathieën van het oog. De extraoculaire spieren die de oogbewegingen regelen zijn de m. rectus medialis en lateralis, de m. rectus inferior en superior en de m. obliquus superior en inferior. Hersenzenuwverlammingen die tot oogbewegingsstoornissen leiden, zijn: Verlamming van de oculomotorische zenuwen kan worden veroorzaakt door hersenletsel, aneurysma, hemorragie, tumor or diabetes; het betroffen oog kijkt opzij terwijl het niet-betroffen oog recht vooruit kijkt; dit veroorzaakt dubbelzien. Verlamming van de nervus trochlearis heeft vaak geen geïdentificeerde oorzaak maar kan het gevolg zijn van hoofdletsel; beide ogen of één oog kunnen getroffen worden; het betroffen oog is niet in staat naar binnen of naar beneden te kijken; dit leidt tot dubbelzien. Verlamming van de nervus abducens kan een aantal oorzaken hebben waaronder hoofdletsel, tumoren, multipele sclerose, aneurysmata, infectie van het centraal zenuwstelsel enz.; het betroffen oog kan niet opzij kijken.
Definition (MDRSPA) Los trastornos de la motilidad ocular incluyen parálisis de la mirada, oftalmoplejía internuclear, lesiones de los nervios oculomotores, lesiones del nervio troclear, lesiones del nervio abducens, oftalmoplejías diabéticas, oftalmoplejías dolorosas, miastenia grave y miopatías oculares. Los músculos extraoculares que controlan los movimientos del ojo son recto medial y lateral, recto superior e inferior, y oblicuo superior e inferior. Las parálisis de pares craneales que derivan en trastornos del movimiento del ojo son: Parálisis del nervio oculomotor puede ser causada por lesión cerebral, aneurisma, hemorragia, tumor o diabetes; hay eversión del ojo afectado cuando el ojo sano mira de frente; esto causa visión doble. Parálisis del nervio troclear a menudo no tiene causa identificada pero puede ser debido a lesión en la cabeza; puede afectar a ambos ojos o sólo uno; el ojo afectado no puede voltear hacia adentro o hacia abajo; ocasiona visión doble. Parálisis del nervio abducens puede tener muchas causas que incluyen lesión en la cabeza, tumores, esclerosis múltiple, aneurismas, infección del SNC, etc.; el ojo afectado no puede voltear hacia afuera.
Definition (MDRPOR) As perturbações da motilidade ocular abrangem a paralisia do olhar, oftalmoplegia internuclear, lesões do nervo patético, lesões do nervo oculomotor, oftalmoplegias diabéticas, oftalmoplegias dolorosas, miastenia grave e miopatias oculares. Os músculos extraoculares que controlam os movimentos do olho são os músculos direitos medial e lateral e os músculos oblíquos superior e inferior. As paralisias dos nervos cranianos que causam as perturbações do movimento do olho são: a paralisia do nervo oculomotor pode ser devida a um traumatismo cerebral, um aneurisma, uma hemorragia ou diabetes; o olho afectado olha para o exterior quando o olho não afectado olha a direito; isto causa a visão dupla. A paralisia do nervo patético muitas vezes não tem uma causa identificável, mas pode ser devida a um traumatismo craniano; os dois olhos ou apenas um olho podem ser afectados; o olho afectado não pode olhar para o interior nem para baixo; daí resulta a visão dupla. Paralisia do nervo oculomotor pode ser devida a várias causas, incluindo traumatismo craniano, tumores, esclerose múltipla, aneurismas, infecção do SNC, etc.; o olho afectado não pode olhar para o exterior.
Definition (MDRITA) I disturbi della motilità oculare includono la paralisi dello sguardo, l'oftalmoplegia internucleare, le lesioni del nervo oculomotore, le lesioni del nervo trocleare, le lesioni del nervo abducente, l'oftalmoplegia diabetica, l'oftalmoplegia dolora, la miastenia gravis e le miopatie oculari. I muscoli extraoculari che controllano i movimenti dell'occhio sono il retto mediale e laterale, il retto inferiore e superiore e l'obliquo superiore e inferiore. Le paralisi del nervo ottico che causano le alterazioni dei movimenti dell'occhio sono: Paralisi del nervo oculomotore può essere causata da lesioni cerebrali, aneurisma, emorragia, tumore o diabete; l'occhio interessato si muove verso l'esterno quando l'occhio non interessato guarda in direzione retta; ciò causa visione doppia. Paralisi del nervo trocleare spesso non ha una causa identificata ma può essere dovuta a lesione alla testa; potrebbero essere affetti entrambi gli occhi o soltanto uno; l'occhio interessato non è in grado di rivolgersi verso l'interno o verso il basso; ciò causa visione doppia. Paralisi del nervo abducente può avere diverse cuase fra cui lesioni alla testa, tumori, sclerosi multipla, aneurismi, infezioni del SNC, ecc.; l'occhio interessato non è in grado di muoversi verso l'esterno.
Definition (MDRGER) Motilitaetserkrankungen des Auges sind einschliesslich: Blicklaehmung, internukleaere Ophthalmoplegie, Laesionen des N. oculomotorius, Leasionen des N. trochlearis, Laesionen des N. abducens, diabetische Ophthalmoplegien, Myesthenia gravis und okulaere Myopathien. Die Augenbewegungen steuernden extraokulaere Muskeln sind: Rectus medialis und lateralis, Rectus inferior und superior, und superior und inferior obliquus. Augenerkrankungen aufgrund von Hirnnervenlaehmungen sind: Laehmung des N. oculomotorius verursacht durch Hirnverletzung, Aneurysma, Blutung, Tumor oder Diabetes; das betroffene Auge dreht sich nach aussen, waehrend das nicht betroffene Auge geradeaus schaut; dies verursacht Doppeltsehen. Laehmung des N. trochlearis hat haeufig keinen bestimmbaren Grund, kann aber auf Kopfverletzungen zurueckfuehrbar sein; beide Augen oder nur ein Auge koennen betroffen sein; das betroffene Auge kann sich nicht nach innen oder oben drehen; Doppeltsehen ist das Ergebnis. Laehmung des N. abducens kann zahlreiche Ursachen haben, einschliesslich Kopfverletzung, Tumor, Multiple Sklerose, Aneurysma, Infektion des Zentralnervensystems, usw.; das betroffene Auge kann sich nach aussen drehen.
Definition (MDRFRE) Les troubles de la motilité oculaire comprennent : paralysie du regard, ophtalmoplégie internucléaire, atteintes du nerf oculomoteur, atteintes du nerf trochléaire, atteintes du nerf abducens, ophtalmoplégies diabétiques, ophtalmoplégies douloureuses, myasthénie grave, et myopathies oculaires. Les muscles qui contrôlent les mouvement de l'œil sont les muscles droits médial et latéral, les muscles obliques supérieur et inférieur. Les paralysies des nerfs crâniens à l'origine de troubles du mouvement de l'œil sont : Paralysie du nerf oculomoteur peut être due à un traumatisme cérébral, un anévrisme, une hémorragie, une tumeur ou un diabète ; l'œil affecté regarde vers l'extérieur quand l'œil non affecté regarde tout droit ; il en résulte une diplopie. Paralysie du nerf trochléaire souvent sans cause identifiable mais peut être due à un traumatisme crânien ; un seul œil ou les deux peuvent être affectés ; l'œil affecté ne peut pas regarder vers l'intérieur ni vers le bas ; il en résulte une diplopie. Paralysie du nerf abducens plusieurs causes sont possibles, dont : traumatisme crânien, tumeur, sclérose en plaques, anévrismes, infection du SNC, etc. ; l'œil affecté ne peut pas regarder vers l'extérieur.
Definition (MDRCZE) Poruchy pohyblivosti oka zahrnují pohledovou obrnu, internukleární oftalmoplegii, léze okulomotorického nervu, léze trochleárního nervu, léze n.abducens, diabetické oftalmoplegie, bolestivé oftalmoplegie, myasthenii gravis a oční myopatie. Zevní oční svaly řídící pohyby oka jsou vnitřní a vnější přímý, dolní a horní přímý, a horní a dolní šikmý. Mezi obrny hlavových nervů, které způsobují poruchy očních pohybů, patří: paréza n. oculomotorius může být způsobena mozkovým traumatem, aneuryzmatem, krvácením, tumorem nebo diabetem; postižené oko se stáčí zevně při pohledu nepostiženého oka přímo vpřed; to způsobuje dvojité vidění. Paréza n. trochlearis často bez zjištěné příčiny nebo při poranění hlavy; může být postiženo jedno nebo obě oči; postižené oko je neschopné pohybu mediálně a kaudálně; důsledkem je dvojité vidění. Paréza n. abducens může mít množství příčin např. poranění hlavy, tumory, roztroušená skleróza, aneuryzmata, infekce CNS atd.; postižené oko je neschopné vnějšího pohledu.
Definition (MDRHUN) Az ocularis motilitas betegségek magukba foglalják a tekintésbénulást, internuclearis ophtamoplegiát, nervus oculomotorius laesiókat, nervus trochlearis laesiókat, nervus abducens laesiókat, diabeteses ophthalmoplegiákat, fájdalmas ophthalmoplegiákat, a myesthenia gravist és az ocularis myopathiákat. A szemmozgást vezérlő extraocularis izmok a medialis és lateralis rectus, az inferior és superior rectus, továbbá a ferde superior és inferior. Szemmozgás betegségeket eredményező agyideg-bénulások: nervus oculomotorius paresis okozhatja agyi sérülés, aneurysma, haemorrhagia, tumor, vagy diabetes; az érintett szem kifelé fordul, miközben a nem érintett szem egyenesen előre tekint; ez kettős látást okoz. Nervus trochlearis paresis gyakran nincs beazonosított oka, azonban lehet fejsérülés következménye; mindkét szem, vagy csak az egyik lehet érintett; az érintett szem képtelen befelé, vagy lefelé fordulni; kettős látást eredményez. Nervus abducens paresis számos oka lehet, például fejsérülés, tumorok, sclerosis multiplex, aneurysma, KIR fertőzés stb.; az érintett szem képtelen kifelé fordulni.
Definition (MDRJPN) ・眼球運動障害には注視麻痺、核間性麻痺、動眼神経病変、滑車神経病変、外転神経病変、糖尿病眼筋麻痺、眼筋麻痺疼痛、重症筋無力症、眼ミオパチーが含まれている。 ・眼球運動をコントロールしている外眼筋には、内側直筋、外側直筋、下直筋、上直筋、上斜筋、下斜筋がある。 ・眼球運動障害の原因となる脳神経麻痺に次の3種がある。 −動眼神経麻痺は、脳損傷、動脈瘤、出血、腫瘍または糖尿病に起因することがあり、症状は正常な目が真っすぐ前を見るとき、罹患した目は外側を向く。これが複視の原因となる。 −滑車神経麻痺は、多くは特定された原因がないが、頭部損傷によるものもあり、両眼または片眼に発生する。罹患した目は内側と下側に向けることができない。結果として複視が生じる。 −外転神経麻痺は、頭部損傷、腫瘍、多発性硬化症、動脈瘤、中枢神経の感染などが原因とされており、罹患した目は、外側に向けることができない
Concepts Classification (T185)
English Ocular motility disorders (SMQ)
Dutch Motiliteitsstoornissen van het oog (SMQ)
Spanish Trastornos de la motilidad ocular (SMQ)
Portuguese Perturbações da motilidade ocular (SMQ)
Italian Disturbi della motilità oculare (SMQ)
German Motilitaetserkrankungen des Auges (SMQ)
French Troubles de la motilité oculaire (SMQ)
Japanese 眼球運動障害(SMQ)
Czech Poruchy pohyblivosti oka (SMQ)
Hungarian Ocularis motilitás betegségek (SMQ)