II. Epidemiology

  1. U.S. Incidence
    1. Total: 45,000 Snake Bites in U.S. per year
    2. Venomous bites: 8000 to 9000 in U.S. per year (almost all are Pit Viper bites)
    3. Deaths from Snake Bite in U.S.: 12 or less per year
    4. Envonomation occurs in 75% of U.S. poisonous SnakeBites
  2. Worldwide Snake Bites (esp. Africa, Asia, Latin America)
    1. Incidence: 2.5 to 5.4 Million Snake Bites/year worldwide (50% are venomous)
    2. Roughly 100,000 to 400,000 deaths per year worldwide from Snake Bites
    3. Roughly 300,000 amputations per year worldwide from Snake Bites

III. Causes: U.S. Poisonous snakes

  1. Coral Snakes (Family Elapidae)
    1. Nonaggressive poisonous snakes of the southern U.S.
    2. Transfer venom via chewing instead of injection
    3. Arizona Sonoran Coral Snake (Micruroides Euryxanthus)
    4. Texas Coral Snake (Micrurus Tener)
      1. Neurotoxic effects may present with findings similar to Botulism
    5. Eastern Coral Snake (Micrurus Fulvius)
      1. Primarily in the southeast United States (Mississippi and Alabama south to Florida)
  2. Pit Vipers or Crotalidae (99% U.S. venomous bites)
    1. Rattlesnake (Crotalus or Sisturus genera)
      1. Most common poisonous snake in U.S.
      2. Potent venom
      3. Responsible for 95% of deaths (esp. Diamondback)
    2. Cottonmouth, water moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorous)
      1. Aggressive water snakes in Southeastern U.S.
      2. Moderately potent venom
    3. Copperhead (Agkistrodan contortix)
      1. Least potent venom

IV. Signs and Symptoms: Pit Vipers (except Mojave rattler)

  1. Snake characteristics
    1. Long movable fangs cause skin puncture marks
    2. Broad triangular heads with elliptical eyes and heat sensing pits between the eyes and nostrils
    3. Up to 25% of pit viper bites deliver no venom (dry bites)
    4. Bites may be deceptively small or appear as scratches and still result in severe Envenomations
  2. Venom alters Coagulation Factors (via Thrombin-like Glycoproteins) cause local tissue necrosis
    1. Immediate pain and burning at bite site
    2. Within a few minutes to 30 minutes, redness and swelling develops
    3. Bite site develops a purplish discoloration, hemorrhagic bullae and necrosis within hours
  3. Generalized signs and symptoms (Hemotoxic effects)
    1. Nausea and Vomiting
    2. Dizziness and Hypotension
    3. Weakness
    4. Sweats and chills
    5. Metallic or Rubbery taste in mouth
  4. Generalized neurotoxic effects (only with U.S. West Coast Rattlesnakes: Mojave, tiger and some timber Rattlesnakes)
    1. Muscle Fasciculations
  5. Systemic complications
    1. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC)
    2. Acute Renal Failure
    3. Hypovolemic Shock (7% of cases)
    4. Rhabdomyolysis (if muscle Fasciculations)
    5. Compartment Syndrome (rare)
  6. Course
    1. Not immediately fatal unless Envenomation into vein

V. Signs and Symptoms: Coral Snakes

  1. Characteristics
    1. Small fixed fangs cause tiny semicircular scratches
    2. Bites are painful
    3. Venom contains a Neurotoxin (primarily affecting acetylcholine receptors)
    4. Coral Snake: Red stripe next to yellow stripe ("Red next to yellow, you're a dead fellow")
      1. Contrast with King Snake
        1. Red stripe next to black stripe ("Red next to black, venom they lack")
      2. This rule applies only in the U.S.
        1. Outside the U.S., Red and Black snakes may be venomous
  2. Generalized symptoms may be delayed 1-8 hours
    1. Drowsiness, Weakness
    2. Paresthesias with numbness at bite site
    3. Bulbar Paralysis with Ptosis, Ophthalmoplegia or Dysphagia
    4. Blurred Vision
    5. Slurred speech
    6. Salivation
    7. Seizures
  3. Systemic complications
    1. Descending Flaccid Paralysis
    2. Cardiac Arrest or respiratory arrest may occur

VI. History

  1. Snake appearance (photo if available) and suspected variety or species
  2. Time elapsed since Snake Bite
  3. Symptoms and their timing since the Snake Bite occurred
  4. Last tetanus Vaccination

VII. Management: First Aid in field

  1. Get to a medical facility as soon as possible, and ideally by EMS
    1. Decompensation may occur rapidly
  2. Calm and reassure patient
  3. Attempt to identify snake type from a distance (photo, color and pattern description)
    1. Do not try to capture the snake for Identification
    2. Do not attempt to handle even a dead snake (Envenomations occur from intact bite reflex)
    3. Adult snake versus baby snake is unlikely to change management (both can cause severe Envenomations)
  4. Do not leave a patient alone
  5. Have the patient lie down
  6. Immobilize bite area
    1. Rattlesnake: Level with the heart
    2. Non-Rattlesnake Pit Viper: Above the level of the heart (may reduce local tissue swelling and inflammation)
    3. Coral Snake: Below the level of the heart (may reduce systemic toxin distribution)
  7. Remove jewelry or clothing that tighten with swelling
  8. Clean the bite area with soap and water
    1. Irrigate the wound with clean water or saline
    2. Apply antiseptic solution and gauze if available
  9. Mechanical venom suction devices are NOT recommended (only remove 2% of venom)
    1. Previously small vacuum venom extractor devices were recommended
      1. Had previously been indicated within 5 minutes of bite, left in place for 30 min
    2. Do not cut wound or try to suck out venom
    3. Avoid harmful methods (see below) at bite site
  10. Low pressure constriction band (NOT a Tourniquet!)
    1. Indicated if medical assistance is >1 hour away and neurotoxic effects are expected
      1. Primarily indicated for Coral Snake bites (not pit vipers)
      2. Australians apply Crepe Wrapping (ACE Wrap from distal to proximal extremity) to impede lymph flow
        1. Theoretically prevents Neurotoxin proximal spread and paralysis
        2. NOT indicated in United States (where we do not have the same neurotoxic snakes)
    2. Wrap A band (ACE, belt, sock) 2-3 inches above bite
      1. Band should be wide and flat
      2. Band applied between bite site and heart
    3. Do not cut off arterial circulation (again, NOT a Tourniquet)
      1. Pressure: 20 mmHg
      2. Be able to slip a finger between band and skin
    4. Leave band in place until medical facility
    5. Contraindications to low pressure constriction band
      1. Gila Monster
      2. Copperhead
      3. Water moccasin
      4. Pygmy Rattlesnake

VIII. Labs

  1. Blood Type and Cross Match
  2. Urinalysis
  3. Chemistry panel (e.g. Chem8)
    1. Renal Function tests (BUN and Creatinine)
    2. Serum Electrolytes
    3. Serum Glucose
  4. Complete Blood Count with Platelet Count
    1. Thrombocytopenia occurs with pit viper bites
      1. May be delayed (repeat Platelet Count in 7-10 days)
  5. Liver Function Tests
  6. Creatine Kinase (CK)
    1. May be increased in Pit Viper Bites (esp. with Timber Rattlesnake)
  7. Coagulation Factors (draw baseline and at 12 hours)
    1. Prothrombin Time (PT/INR)
      1. May be increased in Pit Viper Bites
    2. Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT)
    3. Fibrinogen
      1. May be decreased in Pit Viper Bites
    4. Fibrin Split Products
    5. D-Dimer
      1. May be increased in Pit Viper Bites
    6. Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK)
  8. Other studies that may be indicated (esp. Coral Snake bites)
    1. Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)
    2. Waveform Capnography
    3. Pulmonary Function Tests
    4. Troponin I

IX. Differential Diagnosis

  1. Anaphylaxis
    1. Presents with Hypotension, Tachycardia and Angioedema (similar to severe Envenomation)

X. Diagnostics

XI. Management: Emergency Department

  1. ABC Management
    1. Angioedema may occur requiring airway management
    2. Do not draw blood or start IV in affected extremity
    3. Start Intravenous Fluids
    4. Manage Hypotension (IV fluids, Vasopressors)
    5. Consider Epinephrine and Corticosteroids if signs of Anaphylaxis
  2. Bite Wound Management
    1. Clean and irrigate the wound
    2. Tetanus Toxoid
    3. Opioid Analgesics are often needed (esp. pit viper bites)
    4. Elevate extremity >60 degrees (reduces pain by decreasing localized swelling)
    5. Even wounds that appear deceptively small or scratch-like may result in severe Envenomation
    6. Prophylactic antibiotics are not recommended (<5% infection risk)
  3. Antivenom
    1. See Snake Antivenin
    2. Administer antivenom as soon as possible
      1. However there is not a fixed time window at which point it is too late to give to a symptomatic patient
    3. Administer even for mild pit viper bites
      1. Any systemic signs (e.g. Nausea, Vomiting)
      2. Hypotension
      3. Lab abnormalities (e.g. Thrombocytopenia, increased INR)
      4. Progressive erythema, swelling or pain
      5. Bites involving the hand or foot
    4. Monitor labs at baseline (see above), one hour after antivenom, and then every 6 hours until stable
    5. Monitor for Anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions
    6. Recheck at 48 to 72 hours for repeat CBC, Fibrinogen (for hematologic toxicity)
  4. Contact poison control immediately (in U.S., 1-800-222-1222)
    1. Local zoo herpetologist may also be helpful in snake identification
  5. Suspected pit viper bite management (local swelling and inflammation)
    1. Observe asymptomatic patients 8-12 hours after bite
      1. One quarter of bites are "dry" without venom injected
    2. Monitor frequent pulse checks (every 30 minutes) at a point distal to the bite site
      1. Pulse check with Capillary Refill
      2. Circumferential measurement around extremity bite wounds
    3. Mark leading edge of bite site swelling and erythema every 30 minutes
    4. Hospital admission for any patient who received antivenom
      1. May discharge if stable swelling and labs for 24 hours
    5. Indications for discharge
      1. No proximal spread of extremity findings
      2. Normal laboratory studies
      3. Patient able to return immediately for worsening
      4. Patient should return for Coagulopathy signs or pain not relieved with limb elevation
  6. Suspected Coral Snake bite management
    1. Observe asymptomatic patient for at least 12-24 hours
    2. Monitor neurologic status and respiratory status closely
    3. Requires immediate treatment and antivenin
    4. Neurologic complications may be delayed
    5. Consider Anticholinergics (Atropine, neostigmine)
    6. Hospital admission for any patient who received antivenom
    7. Intubation and Ventilator support may be required
      1. Indicated for Forced Vital Capacity <50% of predicted

XII. Precautions: Avoid harmful methods

  1. Do not cut skin at bite site
  2. Fasciotomy is rarely indicated
    1. Compartment Syndrome may be controlled by antivenin
    2. Only Consider if hourly serial ICP >30 mmHg
  3. Do not use electric shock or stun gun at bite site
  4. Do not apply tightly constricting Tourniquet
  5. Do not administer antivenin in the field
    1. Risk of Anaphylaxis
  6. Delayed Thrombocytopenia (antivenin-refractory) may occur
    1. Recheck Platelet Count again in 7-10 days

XIII. Prevention

  1. On coming upon a snake:
    1. Slowly and quietly move away, and allow it to escape
    2. Do not expect a warning before they strike
      1. Most snakes do not hiss or rattle before striking
    3. Do not handle any snake (even if snake appears dead)
  2. Be alert in areas commonly inhabited by snakes
    1. Hiking, picnicking, camping and firewood areas
    2. Water areas
    3. Tall grass, underbrush, abandoned buildings
    4. Piles of logs, rocks, and branches
  3. Be careful of areas of decreased visibility
    1. Avoid reaching into holes and crevices
    2. Avoid jumping over logs and fences
    3. Pull logs or rocks toward you when turning over
    4. Avoid placing fingers under objects being lifted
  4. Prepare for a hike
    1. Wear boots and long pants
    2. Carry a flashlight for nighttime conditions
    3. Hike with a companion
  5. Reduce residential risks of Snake Bite
    1. Provide lighting for yard, sidewalks, and patio
    2. Keep yard mowed and bushes pruned
    3. Keep home free of mice

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Ontology: Snake Bites (C0037379)

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ICD10 T63.0
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English Snake Bite, Snake Envenomation, Envenomation, Snake, Envenomations, Snake, Snake Envenomations, Bite, Snake, Bites, Snake, Snake venom, Snake venom - toxic effect, Toxic effect of snake venom, Snake Bites, Snakebites, Snakebite, Snake Bites [Disease/Finding], Adverse effect;venom;snake, snake bites, snake envenomations, snake bite, Toxic effect of bite of venomous snake (disorder), Snake venom poison, Snake envenomation, Snake venom causing toxic effect, Poisoning by venomous snake (disorder), Poisoning by venomous snake, Snake bite poisoning, Snake venom poisoning, Toxic effect of bite of venomous snake, snake bite poison, bite; poisoning, snake, Poisoning by venomous snake, NOS, Snake bite poisoning, NOS, Snake venom poisoning, NOS, Toxic effect of bite of venomous snake, NOS, Toxic effect of bite of venomous snake -RETIRED-, snake envenomation
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Korean 뱀독의 중독작용
Polish Ukąszenie przez węża
Japanese ヘビ咬傷, だ咬症, ヘビ中毒症, 毒蛇咬症, 蛇咬傷(ダコウショウ), 蛇咬症, 蛇中毒症, 蛇咬傷
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Dutch beet; giftig, slang, Slangengif, Beet, slangen-, Beten, slangen-, Slangenbeet, Slangenbeetvergiftiging, Slangenbeten
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Portuguese Boca de Algodão
Spanish Mocasin, Agkistrodon piscivorus (organismo), Agkistrodon piscivorus
French Agkistrodon piscivorus
German Wassermokassinschlange
Czech Agkistrodon piscivorus
Norwegian Vannmokasin
Italian Bocca di cotone
Dutch Watermocassinslang

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SnomedCT 376006, 55469004
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Spanish género Micrurus, serpiente de coral americana, género Micrurus (organismo), Micrurus (organismo), Micrurus, serpiente coral, serpiente coral (organismo), Serpiente Coral
French Serpent corail, Micrurus
Portuguese Micrurus, Cobra Coral
German Micrurus, Korallenschlange
Norwegian Korallslange, Micrurus
Italian Micrurus, Serpente corallo
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Concepts Reptile (T014)
MSH D017836
SnomedCT 54216008
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Portuguese Cabeça de Cobre
Spanish Cabeza Cobriza, Agkistrodon contortrix (organismo), Agkistrodon contortrix
German Kupferkopf
Czech Agkistrodon contortrix
French Mocassin à tête cuivrée
Norwegian Kopperhode
Italian Testa di rame
Dutch Koperkop

Ontology: Crotalus (C0206317)

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Concepts Reptile (T014)
MSH D017839
SnomedCT 420914006, 81572007
English Rattlesnake, Crotalus, Rattlesnakes, Genus Crotalus (organism), Genus Crotalus, rattlesnake, rattlesnakes, crotalus, Rattlesnake (organism), Rattlesnake, NOS
Spanish género Crotalus, género Crotalus (organismo), Crotalus, serpiente cascabel (organismo), serpiente cascabel, Culebra Cascabel
French Crotale, Crotalus
Swedish Crotalus
Czech Crotalus, chřestýš
Finnish Kalkkarokäärme
Italian Serpente a sonagli, Crotalo
Polish Grzechotniki właściwe
Japanese ガラガラヘビ属, ガラガラヘビ
Norwegian Klapperslanger, Crotalus
German Crotalus, Klapperschlange
Dutch Crotalus, Ratelslang
Portuguese Cascavel, Crotalus