II. Physiology

  1. Polypeptide produced in the acidophil cells of the anterior pituitary
  2. Hypothalamus controls release when triggered by Hypoglycemia, decreased amino acids
    1. Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH) stimulates release
    2. Somatostatin inhibits release
  3. Biochemistry
    1. Liver converts Growth Hormone to Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and stimulates other growth factors
    2. Growth Hormone is a precursor to Testosterone
  4. Positive Function (stimulates or promotes the following activities)
    1. Bone and cartilage growth
    2. Protein synthesis
    3. Lipid catabolism to Fatty Acids (for energy source)
    4. Hyperglycemia (from decreased cell utilization of Glucose) resulting in an increase of glycogen stores

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Excess Growth Hormone
    1. Gigantism
      1. Symmetric excessive growth in children
    2. Acromegaly
      1. Asymmetric excessive growth in adults (esp. hands, feet, forehead, jaw)
  2. Deficiency of Growth Hormone
    1. Symmetric Dwarfism (intact intelligence)

IV. Resources

V. References

  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Physiology, Medmasters, Miami, p. 133

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Ontology: Growth Hormone (C0037663)

Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) A protein made by the pituitary gland that helps control body growth and the use of glucose and fat in the body.
Definition (NCI) A peptide hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and regulates several physiologic processes, including growth and metabolism.
Definition (MSH) A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121) , Hormone (T125) , Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116)
MSH D013006
SnomedCT 350365006, 56234005
LNC LP14695-8, MTHU002890
English Growth Hormone, Pituitary, Pituitary Growth Hormone, Somatotropin, GH - Growth hormone, Growth hormone, Somatotrophin, Somatrophic hormone, somatotropin, Growth Hormone, growth hormones, growth hormones (medication), STH, Growth Hormone [Chemical/Ingredient], growth hormone, somatotrophin, pituitary growth hormone, somatotropic hormone, Somatrophic hormone (product), Growth hormone preparation, Growth hormone product, Somatotropin preparation, Somatotropin preparation (product), Somatotropin preparation (substance), Somatrophic hormone (substance), GH, GHN, Growth Hormone 1, Somatotropic Hormone, hGHN, SOMATOTROPIN
Swedish Tillväxthormon
Czech růstový hormon, somatotropin, STH
Finnish Kasvuhormoni
French Somatotrophine, Hormone de croissance, Hormone somatotrope, Somatotropine, GH (Growth hormone), STH (Somatotrophic hormone), Somathormone
Russian ROSTA GORMON GIPOFIZARNYI, SOMATOTROPIN, ROSTA GORMON, GORMONY ROSTA GIPOFIZARNYE REKOMBINANTNYE, ROSTA GORMONY GIPOFIZARNYE REKOMBINANTNYE, GIPOFIZARNYE GORMONY ROSTA REKOMBINANTNYE, GORMON ROSTA GIPOFIZARNYI, SOMATOTROPINY REKOMBINANTNYE, ГИПОФИЗАРНЫЕ ГОРМОНЫ РОСТА РЕКОМБИНАНТНЫЕ, ГОРМОН РОСТА ГИПОФИЗАРНЫЙ, ГОРМОНЫ РОСТА ГИПОФИЗАРНЫЕ РЕКОМБИНАНТНЫЕ, РОСТА ГОРМОН, РОСТА ГОРМОН ГИПОФИЗАРНЫЙ, РОСТА ГОРМОНЫ ГИПОФИЗАРНЫЕ РЕКОМБИНАНТНЫЕ, СОМАТОТРОПИН, СОМАТОТРОПИНЫ РЕКОМБИНАНТНЫЕ
Japanese 下垂体成長ホルモン, 下垂体成長ホルモン-組換え, 組換え下垂体成長ホルモン, 組換え成長ホルモン, 組換え成長ホルモン下垂体, 脳下垂体成長ホルモン-組換え, 成長ホルモン-脳下垂体性, 組換え脳下垂体成長ホルモン, 成長ホルモン下垂体-組換え, ソマトトロピン, 下垂体組替え成長ホルモン, 組換成長ホルモン, 組替えソマトトロピン, ソマトトロピン-組換え, 脳下垂体成長ホルモン, 成長ホルモン-組換え, 組換えソマトトロピン, 遺伝子組換え成長ホルモン, 成長ホルモン
Spanish preparado de somatotrofina (producto), somatotrofina (producto), somatotrofina, preparado de somatotrofina, hormona somatotrófica (producto), hormona somatotrófica, Somatotrofina, hormona somatrófica (sustancia), preparado de STH, preparado de hormona del crecimiento, preparado de somatotrofina (sustancia), preparado de somatotropina, hormona somatrófica (producto), hormona somatrófica, Hormona del Crecimiento, Somatotropina, Hormona Hipofisaria del Crecimiento
Italian Ormone della crescita, Ormone pituitario della crescita, Ormone somatotropo, GH, Somatotropina
Croatian SOMATOTROPIN, HORMON RASTA
Polish Ludzki rekombinowany hormon wzrostu, Somatotropiny rekombinowane, rhGH, Hormon wzrostu, Rekombinowane przysadkowe hormony wzrostu, Rekombinowany hormon wzrostu
Norwegian STH, Somatotropin, Somatotropt hormon, GH, Veksthormon
Portuguese Somatotrofina, Somatotropina, Hormônio do Crescimento, Hormônio Hipofisário do Crescimento
German Hypophysen-Wachstumshormon, STH, Somatotropin, Wachstumshormon, Hypophysen-, Wachstumshormon

Ontology: Human Growth Hormone (C3714500)

Definition (MSH) A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
Definition (CSP) polypeptide that is secreted by the anterior pituitary gland; affects protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth.
Concepts Amino Acid, Peptide, or Protein (T116) , Hormone (T125)
MSH D019382
SnomedCT 76765004
English Somatotropin (human), growth hormone, Growth Hormone, Human, Somatotropin (Human), Somatropin, somatotropin, hGH (human growth hormone), STH (somatotropic hormone), somatropin, Human Growth Hormone [Chemical/Ingredient], hgh growth hormone, hgh human hormone growth, human growth hormone hgh, HGH, hgh human growth hormone, growth hormone hgh, human growth hormone (HGH), human growth hormone, hGH, Somatotropin, Human growth hormone (substance), Human growth hormone, STH, GH - Growth hormone, Growth hormone, Somatotropic hormone, HGH - Growth hormone, Somatotrophin, Somatropin (Human), hGH (Human Growth Hormone), Human Growth Hormone
Swedish Humant tillväxthormon
Polish Hormon wzrostu ludzki
Spanish hormona somatotrófica, hormona del crecimiento, hormona del crecimiento humano, hormona del crecimiento humano (sustancia), somatotrofina, somatotropina, Hormona de Crecimiento Humana, Somatotropina (Humana), Somatropina (Humana)
Russian РОСТА ГОРМОН ЧЕЛОВЕКА