II. Background

  1. Adrenergic Receptor agonists increase Blood Pressure
    1. Alpha 1 Adrenergic Receptor binding increases Vasoconstriction
    2. Beta 1 Adrenergic Receptor binding increases myocardial contractility
  2. Presynaptic Adrenergic Release Inhibitors lower Blood Pressure
    1. Central Acting Adrenergic Agonists
      1. Activate alpha-2 receptors that inhibit CNS sympathetic signals
      2. Results in increased parasympathetic effects and side effects
    2. Peripheral Acting Adrenergic Antagonists
      1. Block peripheral Norepinephrine release

III. Preparations: Central Acting Adrenergic Agonists

  1. Mechanism
    1. See Alpha Adrenergic Receptor
    2. Bind central alpha-2 receptors (vasomotor receptors) to inhibit sympathetic outflow
      1. Decreases Peripheral Vascular Resistance (and Blood Pressure)
      2. Decreases Heart Rate
  2. Non-selective Preparations
    1. Clonidine (Catapres)
    2. Alpha Methyldopa (Aldomet)
    3. Guanabenz (Wytensin)
    4. Guanfacine (Tenex)
  3. Selective Preparations: Alpha-2a (for Opioid Withdrawal symptoms)
    1. Lofexidine

IV. Preparations: Peripheral Acting Adrenergic Antagonists

  1. Mechanism
    1. Peripheral Presynaptic Adrenergic Antagonists block Norepinephrine release from postganglionic nerve terminals
    2. Contrast with Postsynaptic Adrenergic Antagonists that block peripheral alpha receptors
  2. Agents
    1. Reserpine (Serpasil)
    2. Guanethidine (Ismelin)
    3. Guanadrel (Hylorel)

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Related Studies

Ontology: Central alpha-adrenoceptor agonist (C0360167)

Concepts Pharmacologic Substance (T121)
SnomedCT 349933002, 372623002
English Central alpha-adrenocep agon., Central alpha-adrenoceptor agonist, Central alpha-adrenoceptor agonist (product), Central alpha-adrenoceptor agonist (substance)
Spanish agonista central alfa adrenérgico (producto), agonista central alfa adrenérgico (sustancia), agonista central alfa adrenérgico, agonista de adrenorreceptor alfa central (sustancia), agonista de adrenorreceptor alfa central