II. Technique

  1. Difference between systolic and diastolic pressures

III. Exam: Normal Pulse Pressure

  1. Range: 30-40 mmHg

IV. Causes: Widened (high) Pulse Pressure (>40 mmHg)

  1. Pathophysiology in Isolated Systolic Hypertension
    1. Suggests reduced large artery vascular compliance
    2. Best Blood Pressure marker for cardiovascular risk
  2. Causes
    1. Isolated Systolic Hypertension
    2. Aortic Regurgitation
    3. Thyrotoxicosis
    4. Patent Ductus Arteriosus
    5. Arteriovenous fistula
    6. Beriberi heart
    7. Aortic Coarctation
    8. Anemia
    9. Emotional state

V. Causes: Narrowed Pulse Pressure (<30 mmHg)

  1. Pathophysiology in Hypovolemic Shock
    1. Sympathetic response to decreased circulating Blood Volume
    2. Diastolic Blood Pressure increase without systolic Blood Pressure increase
  2. Causes
    1. Tachycardia
    2. Severe Aortic Stenosis
    3. Constrictive Pericarditis
    4. Pericardial Effusion
    5. Ascites

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