II. Causes: Negative

  1. Normal

III. Causes: Positive (percentage refers to sensitivity)

  1. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (30-40%)
    1. Correlates with disease activity
  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (10%)
  3. Sjogren's Syndrome (15%)
  4. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (95%)
  5. Systemic Sclerosis (30%)
  6. Drug Induced Lupus (<5%)

IV. References

  1. Gladman in Klippel (1997) Rheumatic Diseases p. 255-6
  2. Peng in Ruddy (2001) Kelley's Rheumatology, p. 161-72
  3. Callegari (1995) Postgrad Med, 97(4):65-74 [PubMed]
  4. Lane (2002) Am Fam Physician 65(6):1073-80 [PubMed]

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