II. Mechanism

  1. Occurs after Lone Star Tick Bite (Amblyomma Americanum), found in the eastern and southeastern United States
  2. Sensitization to Galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal) due to IgE cross reactivity
  3. Alpha-gal is present in both tick Saliva and red meat (lamb, pork, beef, venison, rabbit)

III. Findings

  1. New severe, sudden, Allergic Reaction (Urticaria, Anaphylaxis) to red meat (beef, lamb, pork, venison, rabbit)

IV. Associated Conditions: Other Lone Star Tick related illnesses

V. Findings

  1. Allergic Reaction onset 2 to 6 hours after red meat (or derived product) ingestion

VI. Differential Diagnosis: Red Meat Allergy

  1. Alpha-Gal Syndrome (described on this page)
  2. Primary Beef Allergy
    1. Young children with Atopic Dermatitis (esp. with Cow's Milk Allergy)
  3. Pork-Cat Syndrome
    1. Patients with cat allergy develop pork allergy (and in some cases beef allergy)
    2. Primarily seen in teens and young adults

VII. Management

  1. See Allergic Reaction
  2. See Anaphylaxis
  3. Avoid all red meat products
  4. Avoid animal derived products (e.g. cow's milk, gelatin)

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