II. Definitions

  1. Cervical Radiculopathy
    1. Cervical nerve root irritation or compression resulting in upper extremity pain

III. Epidemiology

  1. Incidence (U.S.)
    1. Men: 107 per 100,000/year
    2. Women: 64 per 100,000/year
  2. C5-C6 disc represents 90% of cervical disc lesions
    1. C6 nerve root impingement is most common (followed by C7 nerve root impingement)

IV. Anatomy

  1. See Cervical Spine Anatomy
  2. Cervical spinal nerves C1-C7 exit about their corresponding Vertebrae
    1. In transitioning to Thoracic Spine, C8 exits below the C7 Vertebra, and above T1
    2. In contrast, all thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves exit below their corresponding Vertebrae
  3. Lateral Herniation compresses the nerve root below
    1. Example: C5-6 disc Herniation compresses C6 root

V. Pathophysiology: Nerve Impingement Types

  1. Acute Cervical Disc Herniation (younger patients, accounts for 22% of radiculopathy cases overall)
    1. Soft disc protrusion from nuclear Herniation
    2. Intraforaminal disc Herniation causes sensory radiculopathy (most common)
    3. Posterolateral disc Herniation causes weakness and muscle atrophy
    4. Central DIsc Herniation causes central cord compression and myelopathy (least common)
      1. May result in numbness and weakness as well as Ataxia, urine changes
  2. Chronic Cervical Disc Disease (older patients, majority of patients)
    1. See Cervical Spine Anatomy
    2. Cervical Spine degeneration associated with Osteoarthritis
    3. Spurring at uncovertebral joint (posterior foramen) compresses Sensory Nerve roots
    4. Spurring at facet joints (anterior foramen) compresses Motor Nerve roots
    5. Hard disc lesion associated with Cervical Spondylosis

VI. Symptoms

  1. Neck tight or stiff
  2. Radicular Symptoms
    1. Characteristics
      1. Radicular pain (most common)
      2. Paresthesias
      3. Weakness (15% of patients)
    2. Radiation into Shoulder
    3. Radiation along Radial Nerve distribution into arm
      1. Does not often radiate below elbow
      2. Contrast with Paresthesias (distal radiation)
    4. Radiation into medial Scapula
      1. Interscapular pain is not of Shoulder origin
  3. Provocative
    1. Worse with activity
    2. Worse on awakening in Morning
    3. Worse with neck extension
    4. Worse with coughing, sneezing, or straining
  4. Associated symptoms
    1. Headaches
    2. Dysphagia
      1. Related to large anterior osteophytes

VII. Signs

  1. Decreased Range of Motion
    1. Neck flexion and extension
    2. Neck lateral bending to right and left
    3. Neck rotation to right and left
  2. Neck hyperextension elicits pain
  3. Pain on palpation
    1. Localized C-Spine tenderness
    2. Trigger Point tenderness over interscapular area

VIII. Signs: Provocative Tests

  1. Vertex Compression Test (Spurling Test)
    1. Turn neck to ipsilateral side (lateral flexion and extension) and axial load
    2. Pressure against top of head reproduces arm pain (by compressing neural foramina)
    3. High Test Sensitivity and Specificity
    4. Shah (2004) Br J Neurosurg 18(5): 480-3 [PubMed]
  2. Shoulder Abduction test
    1. Patient places their palm of the affected arm on top of their head
    2. Considered a positive test if this positioning relieves radicular pain
    3. Tandeter (1997) Canadian Family Physician 43:511-2
  3. Upper limb tension test
    1. Patient supine with neutral Shoulder at side with flexed elbow and wrist
    2. Examiner places counter pressure at anterior Shoulder and abducts the Shoulder to 90 degrees
    3. Examiner extends the elbow, wrist and fingers and supinates the Forearm
    4. Patient lateral deviates the neck to either side
    5. Considered a positive test if positioning provokes the pain
    6. Nee (2012) J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 42(5):413-24

IX. Signs: Motor Exam and Sensory Exam localization

  1. Background
    1. See Motor Exam
    2. See Sensory Exam
    3. See Neuroanatomy of the Arm
    4. Diminished Deep Tendon Reflex is most common objective neurologic finding
      1. Loss of Triceps Reflex is most common
    5. Motor weakness may also be identified
  2. C3-4 Disc (C4 nerve root)
    1. Pain at lower neck or trapezius muscle
    2. Sensory change only (no motor or reflex changes)
      1. Cape distribution
      2. Includes lower neck and upper Shoulder girdle
  3. C4-5 Disc (C5 nerve root)
    1. Pain
      1. Base of neck
      2. Shoulder
      3. Anterolateral arm
    2. Numbness
      1. Deltoid
    3. Motor weakness and atrophy
      1. Deltoid muscle
      2. Biceps muscle
    4. Reflexes decreased
      1. Biceps Reflex
  4. C5-6 Disc (C6 nerve root)
    1. Pain
      1. Neck
      2. Shoulder
      3. Medial Scapula
      4. Dorsolateral arm
    2. Sensory change
      1. Dorsolateral thumb
      2. Index finger
    3. Motor weakness and atrophy
      1. Biceps muscle
      2. Extensor pollicis longus
    4. Reflexes decreased
      1. Biceps Reflex
      2. Brachioradialis Reflex
  5. C6-7 Disc (C7 nerve root)
    1. Pain same as C5-6 Disc (C6 nerve root)
    2. Sensory change
      1. Index finger
      2. Middle finger
      3. Dorsal hand
    3. Motor weakness and atrophy
      1. Triceps muscle
    4. Reflexes decreased
      1. Triceps Reflex

XI. Differential Diagnosis: Focal Peripheral Neuropathy (Neuropraxia)

  1. See Overuse Syndromes of the Hand and Wrist
  2. Anterior interosseus nerve entrapment
    1. Weakness of pinch and grip, without associated pain
  3. Posterior interosseous nerve entrapment
    1. Weakness of fingers and wrist, WITH associated pain
    2. In contrast to C7 nerve root, posterior interosseous has no triceps or wrist flexion weakness
  4. Radial Nerve entrapment (Radial Tunnel)
    1. Radial Forearm pain
  5. Median Nerve entrapment (Carpal Tunnel)
    1. Paresthesias and numbness in radial 3.5 fingers
    2. In contrast to C6-7 nerve roots, Carpal Tunnel has no triceps or wrist extension weakness
  6. Ulnar Nerve entrapment (Cubital Tunnel)
    1. Flexor digitorum profundus weakness with numbness and Paresthesias in ulnar 1.5 fingers
    2. In contrast to C8-T1 nerve roots, Cubital Tunnel has no thumb IP flexion weakness
  7. Brachial plexopathy (Personage-Turner Syndrome, Neuralgic Amyotrophy)
    1. Proximal arm pain, and ultimately weakness and sensory loss due to Brachial Plexus lesion

XII. Differential Diagnosis: Serious and less common

  1. Vascular causes
    1. Arteriovenous malformation
    2. Cardiac Chest Pain (Angina)
    3. Post-median sternotomy following thoracic surgery
  2. Spinal causes
    1. Cervical Spinal Stenosis
    2. Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy
    3. Epidural Abscess
    4. Extremity abscess
  3. Miscellaneous causes
    1. Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy
  4. Tumor
    1. Schwannoma
    2. Osteochondroma
    3. Pancoast Tumor
    4. Thyroid Cancer
    5. Esophageal Cancer
    6. Lymphoma

XIII. Evaluation: Red Flags (consider alternative diagnosis)

  1. Patient under age 20 years or over age 50 years
  2. Systemic disease signs or symptoms
  3. Neck rigidity without Trauma
    1. Especially if rapid onset and associated with Headache
  4. Cognitive changes
    1. Decreased ability to communicate
    2. Altered Level of Consciousness
  5. Spine instability risks (ligament laxity or Atlantoaxial Instability risks)
    1. Down Syndrome
    2. Rheumatoid Arthritis
    3. C-Spine Trauma with MRI demonstrating Ligamentous Injury
  6. Neurovascular event suspected
    1. Vertebrobasilar dissection (e.g. following chiropractic manipulation)
    2. Carotid Stenosis
    3. Transient Ischemic Attack symptoms
  7. Suspected infection (e.g. fever, esp. immunocompromised, IVDA)
    1. Diskitis or Epidural Abscess
    2. Osteomyelitis
    3. Tuberculosis
  8. Structural deformity
    1. Failed spinal fusion
    2. Cervical Spinal Stenosis
  9. Myelopathy symptoms
    1. Ataxia
    2. Decreased dexterity
    3. Urine urgency
    4. Hyperreflexia or Clonus
    5. Hoffman Sign
  10. Malignancy symptoms
    1. Fever
    2. Cancer history
    3. Night pain
    4. Weight loss

XIV. Imaging

  1. Cervical Spine XRay
    1. Typically a first-line study, but limited efficacy in radiculopathy, and low Specificity in age over 50 years
    2. Indicated in persistent symptoms >4-6 weeks, Trauma, cancer red flags
    3. Cervical Spine CT is preferred for adults with Traumatic neck injury
    4. Views
      1. Standard: Anteroposterior, Lateral (and oblique views in suspected foraminal stenosis)
      2. Trauma: Anteroposterior Open Mouth Odontoid view (in addition to standard views)
      3. Additional views to consider: Flexion and extension views
  2. Cervical Spine CT
    1. Traumatic neck injury evaluation in adults at acute emergency visit
    2. Not as useful in evaluating cervical disc or radiculopathy (without myelography)
    3. Avoid in children
      1. Consult with local experts
      2. Consider MRI Cervical Spine instead if XRay not diagnostic
  3. Cervical Spine MRI
    1. Indicated urgently for red flags (see above), progessive neurologic deficit or myelopathy, epidual abscess
    2. Indicated routinely for refractory course beyond 6 weeks of conservative therapy
    3. High rate of false positives (57% over age 64 years) and false negatives in Cervical Radiculopathy
  4. CT Cervical Spine with Myelography (requires spinal contrast injection)
    1. May offer definitive evidence where MRI is non-diagnostic in Cervical Radiculopathy
    2. Offers alternative for patients who cannot undergo MRI

XV. Diagnostics

  1. Electromyography (EMG)
    1. Consider in atypical Peripheral Neuropathy and distinguishing proximal from distal cause

XVI. Precautions

  1. Thorough Neurologic Exam is critical to identify deficits
  2. Cervical Radiculopathy with a neurologic deficit should be addressed promptly (consult spine surgery)
    1. Cervical nerve impingement is less forgiving than lumbar nerve impingement
    2. Prolonged impingement with neurologic deficits is a risk for persistent deficits
  3. Cervical Spinal Stenosis may result in significant spinal cord injury
    1. Upper Motor Neuron effects may include hyperreflexia and Clonus
    2. Assess proprioception and balance to help exclude cord compression

XVII. Management: Acute radicular pain

  1. Start with history, examination and Cervical Spine XRay as described above
  2. Urgent Cervical Spine MRI and spine referral indications
    1. Red flags (see above)
    2. Progessive neurologic deficit
    3. Myelopathy
    4. Imaging findings demonstrate osseous destruction or instability signs
  3. Initiate conservative management
    1. Relative Rest
      1. Consider 1 week of neck immobilization such as in hard Cervical Collar (soft collar insufficient)
        1. Keeps head slightly flexed or in neutral position
        2. Kuijper (2009) BMJ 339:b3883 [PubMed]
      2. Acute disc injury (soft Cervical Disc Herniation)
        1. Allows healing of disc
      3. Chronic disc disease (hard Cervical Disc Herniation)
        1. Allows inflammation around disc to subside
    2. Local moist heat and massage
      1. Relieves tenderness and muscle pain
    3. Acute Pain Management
      1. NSAIDs
      2. Muscle relaxants (e.g. Cyclobenzaprine or Flexeril)
        1. Variable efficacy
      3. Systemic Corticosteroids
        1. Epidural Corticosteroids more likely to be of benefit (see below)
        2. May offer short-term benefit (as evaluated day 10)
          1. Ghasemi (2013) J Res Med Sci 18(suppl 1): S43-6 [PubMed]
        3. However, no longterm benefit in pain, Disability or need for surgery
          1. Goldberg (2015) JAMA 313(19):1915-23 [PubMed]
      4. Opioid Analgesics may be needed (e.g. Hydrocodone, Oxycodone)
  4. Reevaluate after 2 weeks and continue conservative therapy with precautions
    1. Diagnosis unclear
      1. Consider Nerve Conduction Studies and EMG
    2. Progressive deficit found on re-evaluation (esp. beyond 3 weeks)
      1. C-Spine MRI
      2. Refer to spine surgery for progressive deficit
    3. Symptoms fail to improve
      1. Epidural Corticosteroid Injection
        1. Interlaminar injections reduce pain at 1 week, 1 month, 6 months
          1. Pasqualucci (2007) Clin J Pain 23(7):551-7 [PubMed]
        2. Transforaminal injections reduce pain at 4 weeks
          1. Engel (2014) Pain Med 15:386-402 [PubMed]
      2. Physical therapy 3-5 times per week for 4-6 weeks
        1. See Cervical Disc Herniation Rehabilitation
        2. Starting with gentle range of motion, Stretching, massage, TENS
        3. Stretching focused on neck and chest muscles
        4. Later employ isometric strengthening and active range of motion
          1. Deep neck flexor, Shoulder retraction, Scapular muscles
        5. Provides short term relief
        6. Does not change the course of the disc disease
        7. Cheng (2015) J Phys Ther Sci 3011-18 [PubMed]
      3. Consider empiric trial of Cervical Traction
        1. If no contraindications and acute muscular pain has resolved
        2. Ideal regimen (lying traction more likely to achieve, whereas over-the-door not as likely)
          1. Position neck flexion 15-25 degrees
          2. Intermittent traction 60 seconds, followed by 20 seconds relaxed force
          3. Start with 12 pounds and increase as tolerated
        3. References
          1. Fritz (2014) J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 44(2): 45-57 [PubMed]
      4. Consider starting medication to reduce daily pain
        1. Tricyclic Antidepressant (e.g. Amitriptyline)
        2. SNRI (Venlafaxine, Duloxetine)
  5. Reevaluate after an additional 4 weeks and obtain Cervical Spine MRI for those failing to improve
    1. Positive Cervical Spine MRI
      1. Consider cervical epidural steroid injection or foraminal steroid injection
        1. Kwon (2007) Skeletal Radiol 36(5): 431-6 [PubMed]
        2. Diwan (2012) Pain Physician 15(4): E405-34 [PubMed]
      2. Consider spine surgery or neurosurgery Consultation
    2. Negative Cervical Spine MRI
      1. Consider differential diagnosis (see above)
      2. Consider rheumatologic cause

XVIII. Management: General

  1. See Cervical Disc Herniation Management
  2. Conservative management indicated in most cases
    1. See Cervical Disc Herniation Rehabilitation
    2. No danger in observation (except where urgencies exist as describe above)
    3. Encourage patience
    4. Do not rush surgical intervention
  3. Surgery (5% of cases)
    1. Indications
      1. Pain and Disability intolerable
        1. Arm pain responds better than Neck Pain
      2. Major neurological deficit
    2. Procedure: affected disc replaced
      1. Bone graft
      2. Arthrodesis
    3. Results
      1. Arm pain subsides immediately after surgery
      2. Osteophytes in foramen absorbed in 9-18 months

XIX. Prognosis

  1. Most patients improve with conservative management (88% at 4 weeks)
  2. Recovery may require weeks to months

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies (from Trip Database) Open in New Window

Ontology: Prolapsed cervical intervertebral disc (C0410619)

Concepts Acquired Abnormality (T020)
SnomedCT 156630008, 240215009
English Prolapse cerv intervert disc, Cervical disc herniation, extruded cervical intervertebral disc (diagnosis), herniated cervical intervertebral disc, bulging cervical intervertebral disc, herniated cervical disc, bulging cervical intervertebral disc (diagnosis), herniated cervical intervertebral disc (diagnosis), extruded cervical intervertebral disc, bulging cervical disc, extruded cervical disc, Slipped cervical disc, cervical disc slipped, Slipped;disc;cervical, cervical slip disc, cervical disc slip, slipped cervical disc, slip cervical disc, cervical slipped disc, Prolapsed cervical intervertebral disc, Prolapsed cervical intervertebral disc (disorder)
Dutch hernia van halswervel, dislocatie tussenwervelschijf cervicaal
French Hernie du disque cervical, Hernie discale cervicale
German Halswirbelhernie, verlagerte zervikale Bandscheibe
Italian Ernia del disco cervicale, Ernia di disco cervicale
Portuguese Herniação do disco cervical, Disco cervical deslocado
Spanish Hernia discal cervical, prolapso de disco intervertebral cervical (trastorno), prolapso de disco intervertebral cervical
Japanese 頚部椎間板すべり症, 頚椎椎間板ヘルニア, ケイブツイカンバンスベリショウ, ケイツイツイカンバンヘルニア
Czech Vyhřezlá krční ploténka, Herniace cervikální destičky
Hungarian Félrecsúszott nyaki discus, Nyaki discus herniatio

Ontology: Cervical disc disorder with radiculopathy (C0451888)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD10 M50.1
SnomedCT 202757008
English Cerv disc disord + radiculopth, Cervical disc disorder with radiculopathy, Cervical disc disorder with radiculopathy (disorder), compression; nerve root, in intervertebral disk disorder, cervical (etiology), compression; nerve root, in intervertebral disk disorder, cervical (manifestation)
German Zervikaler Bandscheibenschaden mit Radikulopathie
Korean 신경뿌리병증을 동반한 목뼈원판 장애
Dutch compressie; zenuwwortel, door tussenwervelschijf, cervicaal, Aandoening van cervicale tussenwervelschijf met radiculopathie
Spanish discopatía cervical con radiculopatía (trastorno), discopatía cervical con radiculopatía

Ontology: Cervical disc disorder (C0477633)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
ICD10 M50.9 , M50
SnomedCT 425878001, 203832001
English Cervical disc disord, unsp, Cervical disc disorder, unspecified, [X]Cervical disc disord, unsp, [X]Cervical disc disorder, unspecified, Cervical disc disorder (disorder), Cervical disc disorder, Cervical disc disorders, cervical disc disease, cervical disc diseases, disc disease cervical spine, disease cervical disc, disc disease cervical, cervical disc disease spine, cervical spine disc disease, Cervical disc disease, [X]Cervical disc disorder, unspecified (disorder), Cervical intervertebral disc disease
Spanish trastorno de disco intervertebral cervical (trastorno), trastorno de disco intervertebral cervical, [X]trastorno del disco intervertebral cervical, no especificado, [X]trastorno del disco intervertebral cervical, no especificado (trastorno)
German Zervikale Bandscheibenschaeden, Zervikaler Bandscheibenschaden, nicht naeher bezeichnet
Korean 상세불명의 목뼈원판 장애, 목뼈원판 장애
Dutch Aandoening van cervicale tussenwervelschijf, niet gespecificeerd, Aandoeningen van cervicale tussenwervelschijf

Ontology: Radiculopathy, Cervical (C0742186)

Concepts Disease or Syndrome (T047)
MSH D011843
SnomedCT 54404000
Spanish lesión de la raíz de los nervios cervicales, neuropatía de raíz cervical, Radiculopatía cervical, lesión de la raíz de los nervios cervicales (trastorno), radiculopatía cervical (trastorno), radiculopatía cervical
French Radiculopathie cervicale
English cervical root lesions, cervical root lesions (diagnosis), cervical radiculopathy, cervical radiculopathy (diagnosis), nerve root and plexus disorder cervical root lesions, Cervical Radiculopathies, Cervical Radiculopathy, Radiculopathies, Cervical, cervical root lesion, radiculopathy cervical, Cervical root neuropathy, Cervical radiculopathy, Cervical radiculopathy (disorder), Cervical root lesion, neuropathy; radicular, cervical, Cervical root lesion, NOS, Radiculopathy, Cervical, lesion of cervical root, Lesion;cervical root
Czech cervikální radikulopatie, radikulopatie cervikální, Cervikální radikulopatie
Norwegian Cervikal radikulopati
Dutch cervicale radiculopathie, neuropathie; radiculair, cervicaal
German Radikulopathie der Halswirbel
Hungarian Nyaki radiculopathia
Japanese 頚髄神経根障害, ケイズイシンケイコンショウガイ
Portuguese Radiculopatia cervical
Italian Radicolopatia cervicale