II. Pathophysiology

  1. Anticholinergic Medications
    1. Block parasympathetic muscarinic receptors in detrusor muscle with impaired contractility
  2. Alpha-adrenergic agonists (e.g. Decongestants)
    1. Increases Prostate and Bladder neck
  3. Calcium Channel Blockers
    1. Decreased Bladder smooth muscle contractility
  4. NSAIDs
    1. Inhibits prostaglandin synthesis and secondary decreased detrusor contractility (theoretical)

IV. Causes: Neuropsychiatric agents

  1. Amphetamines
  2. Benzodiazepines
  3. Carbamazepine
  4. Antiparkinson agents
    1. Amantadine
    2. Trihexyphenidyl
    3. Benztropine
    4. Levodopa
    5. Bromocriptine
  5. Tricyclic Antidepressants
    1. Amitriptyline
    2. Nortriptyline
    3. Imipramine
    4. Doxepin
  6. Antipsychotics
    1. Thioridazine
    2. Haloperidol
    3. Chlorpromazine
    4. Fluphenazine
    5. Prochlorperazine
    6. Thiothixene

V. Causes: Cardiopulmonary agents

VI. Causes: Miscellaneous

VII. Causes: Herbals and other over-the-counter products

  1. Ephedra or Ma Huang
  2. Country Mallow
  3. Heartleaf
  4. Bitter Orange

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