II. Mechanism

  1. Bladder overdistention with Urinary Retention
  2. Usually have high residual urine

III. Causes

  1. Neurologic disease inhibiting detrussor activity
    1. Diabetes Mellitus
    2. Vitamin B12 Deficiency
    3. Herniated intervertebral disc
    4. Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus
  2. Bladder outlet obstruction
    1. Prostatic enlargement (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy)
    2. Urethral or Bladder neck stricture
    3. Pelvic tumors
    4. Uninhibited Urethral sphicter contraction
  3. Medication induced decreased Bladder contractility
    1. See Medication Causes of Urinary Incontinence
    2. ACE Inhibitor
    3. Beta Blockers
    4. Calcium Channel Blockers
    5. Antidepressants
    6. Antipsychotics
    7. Antihistamines
    8. Antiparkinsonism medications
    9. Opioids
    10. Skeletal Muscle Relaxants
  4. Medication induced increased Urethral sphincter tone
    1. Alpha adrenergic agonists
    2. Amphetamines
    3. Tricyclic Antidepressants

IV. Symptoms

  1. Incomplete Bladder emptying with need to strain to try to empty Bladder
  2. Urinary Frequency
  3. Urinary hesitancy
  4. Double voiding (sensation to void again shortly after last void)
  5. Leakage of urine

V. Signs

  1. Palpable distended Bladder post voiding
  2. Post-void residual >200 cc (see Bladder Stress Test)
    1. Have patient void
    2. Insert Urinary Catheter and record Urine Volume
    3. Normally less than 50 cc

VI. Diagnosis

  1. Ultrasound assess Bladder volume
  2. Uroflowmetry (urodynamics)

VII. Management: General

  1. Correct underlying outflow obstruction
  2. Intermittent Self Catheterization
  3. Double Voiding
  4. Crede's Maneuver

VIII. Management: Betanachol (Urecholine)

  1. Mechanism
    1. Cholinergic agonist
    2. Parasympathetic stimulation contracts detrussor
  2. Indications: Non-obstructive Bladder atony
  3. Contraindications
    1. Hyperthyroidism
    2. Peptic Ulcer Disease
    3. Asthma

IX. Management: Alpha-Adrenergic blockade

  1. Preparations
    1. Prazosin (Minipress)
    2. Terazosin (Hytrin)
  2. Mechanism
    1. Decreases Bladder neck and Urethral tone
  3. Indications
    1. Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
    2. Sphincter Hyperspasticity (non-surgical candidate)

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Related Studies

Ontology: Overflow incontinence of urine (C0312413)

Concepts Finding (T033)
ICD9 788.38
ICD10 N39.490
SnomedCT 236661008, 41840003, 397878005
English overflow incontinence (diagnosis), overflow incontinence, Overflow incontinence of urine, Overflow Incontinence, Overflow incontinence, paradoxical incontinence, overflow urinary incontinence, Paradoxic incontinence, Overflow incontinence of urine (finding), Paradoxical incontinence, incontinence; overflow, incontinence; urinary, overflow, overflow; incontinence, urine; incontinence, overflow
Spanish incontinencia por rebosamiento, incontinencia paradójica, incontinencia urinaria por rebalsamiento, incontinencia urinaria por rebalsamiento (hallazgo), incontinencia urinaria por rebosamiento (hallazgo), incontinencia urinaria por rebosamiento
Dutch incontinentie; overloop, incontinentie; urine, overloop, overloop; incontinentie, urine; incontinentie, overloop