II. Epidemiology

  1. Most common cause of Glomerulonephritis
  2. Most often in childhood (ages 2 to 6)

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Prototype for Acute Glomerulonephritis
  2. Follows Group A Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus Infection
  3. Onset 10-14 days after infection
    1. Streptococcal Pharyngitis
    2. Scarlet Fever

IV. Symptoms: Nephritic Syndrome

  1. Oliguric Acute Renal Failure
  2. Gross Hematuria
  3. Flank pain is variably present
  4. General symptoms
    1. Headache
    2. Anorexia
    3. Nausea or Vomiting

V. Signs

VI. Labs

  1. Throat Culture
  2. Skin Culture
  3. ASO Titer increased on serial measurements
  4. Serum Complement decreased

VII. Diagnosis: Renal biopsy

  1. Indications: Diffuse proliferative Glomerulonephritis
    1. Severe or progressive Renal Failure
    2. Delayed resolution of clinical illness
    3. Systemic signs (Joint Pain, fever, Hepatomegaly)

VIII. Prognosis

  1. Most cases are self limited (95%)
    1. Resolve within 4 weeks without residua
  2. Adults do worse then children
    1. Higher risk of Chronic Glomerulonephritis

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