II. Causes: Bilateral Lower Extremity Edema - Cardiovascular

  1. Decreased Cardiac Output
    1. Congestive Heart Failure
      1. Left Heart Failure results in Pulmonary Edema
      2. Right Heart Failure results in Generalized Edema
    2. Constrictive Pericarditis
    3. Pericarditis with effusion
  2. Venous Obstruction
    1. Inferior vein obstruction
    2. Venous obstruction due to intraluminal metastasis
    3. Thrombophlebitis
  3. Decreased venous tone
    1. Seen in sedentary patients

III. Causes: Bilateral Lower Extremity Edema - Non-cardiovascular

  1. Gastrointestinal
    1. Hepatic Cirrhosis or liver failure
    2. Portal Vein obstruction
    3. Protein-losing Enteropathy
  2. Renal
    1. Renal Failure
    2. Nephrotic Syndrome
  3. Malnutrition or Hypoalbuminemia
    1. Anemia
    2. Kwashiorkor or "starvation edema"
    3. Beriberi
  4. Carbohydrate Loading or cyclic Carbohydrate binging
    1. Patients who fast during week and eat on weekends
    2. Frequent travelers with altered eating habits
    3. Anorexia Nervosa
    4. Bulimia Nervosa
  5. Miscellaneous causes
    1. Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (after 20 weeks gestation)
    2. Tight clothing (e.g. garter belt)
    3. Medication Causes of Edema
    4. Menstruation or pregnancy
    5. Systemic Vasculitis
    6. Idiopathic Edema
    7. Allergic Reaction (e.g. Angioedema)
    8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea
      1. Mechanisms include Pulmonary Hypertension
    9. Thyroid Disease
      1. Hypothyroidism: Generalized Myxedema
      2. Hyperthyroidism: Pretibial Myxedema (in Grave's Disease)

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies

Ontology: Swollen legs (C0581394)

Concepts Sign or Symptom (T184)
SnomedCT 449614009, 267040003, 203134002, 139244003, 161982007, 275319005
English swollen legs feet, swollen leg, leg swelling, lower extremity swelling, swelling of legs, Swollen;leg, legs swelling, legs feet swollen, swollen feet/legs, leg swollen, swollen feet legs, swollen legs, feet legs swollen, swollen feet leg, Swelling of lower limb, Swelling of lower limb (finding), Leg swelling (finding), Swelling of legs, Hindlimb swelling, Leg swelling, Swollen leg, Swollen legs, Swollen legs (finding), leg; swelling, swelling; leg
Spanish tumefacción de miembro inferior (hallazgo), tumefacción de miembro inferior, tumefacción de pierna (hallazgo), edema de extremidad inferior, tumefacción de pierna, Hinchazón de piernas, piernas tumefactas (hallazgo), piernas tumefactas
Czech Zduření nohou
Dutch zwelling van benen, been; zwelling, zwelling; been
French Gonflement des jambes
German Schwellung der Beine
Hungarian Lábszár duzzanat
Italian Rigonfiamento delle gambe
Japanese 下肢腫脹, カシシュチョウ
Portuguese Tumefacção das pernas