II. Definition

  1. Persons forced or coerced into exploitation (e.g. Forced Labor, Sexual Slavery, Organ Trafficking)

III. Epidemiology

  1. Affects more than 27 Million persons annually worldwide ($10-30 Billion global industry)
  2. Affects at least 17,000 Immigrants brought to the United States annually
  3. Affects U.S. residents who are coerced into Forced Labor or Sexual Slavery (esp. ages 12-14 year old girls)
  4. U.N. estimates up to 20% of Kidney donors were coerced into organ donation via black market

IV. Precautions

  1. Victims of Human Trafficking are most likely to be seen in health care, especially emergency departments
  2. Emergency Departments offer a unique opportunity for identifying and assisting Human Trafficking victims

V. History: Interview the patient without companions present

  1. Under age?
  2. Crowded living and sleeping conditions?
  3. Adequate nutrition?
  4. Who are companions and do you trust them?
  5. Forced to work or have sex?

VI. Management: Consultation

  1. Forensic nurses (SANE nurses)
  2. Medical Interpreter
    1. Allows a detailed, reliable careful history
    2. Avoid translation by companions

VIII. References

  1. Jhun, Weinstock and Flores in Herbert (2015) EM:Rap 15(7): 7
  2. Swadron, Weinstock, Downing and Kaiser in Herbert (2015) EM:Rap 15(7): 8-9
  3. Patel (2010) West J Emerg Med 11(5): 402-4 [PubMed]

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Ontology: Slavery (C3658278)

Definition (MSH) The status or condition of a person over whom any or all of the powers attaching to the right of ownership are exercised. The slave trade is all acts involved in the capture, acquisition or disposal of persons with intent to reduce them to enslavement; all acts involved in the acquisition of enslaved persons with a view to selling or exchanging them; all acts of disposal by sale or exchange of persons acquired with a view to being sold or exchanged, and, in general, every act of trade or transport of slaves. ( from http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Publications/slaveryen.pdf accessed 10/18/2012)
Concepts Social Behavior (T054)
MSH D063947
English Slaveholdings, Slavery, Enslavement, Slaveholding, Enslavements
Czech otroctví
French Possession d'esclaves, Asservissement, Esclavage, Assujettissement, Détention d'esclaves
German Sklavenhalterei, Versklavung, Sklaverei
Italian Detenzione di schiavi, Riduzione in schiavitù, Schiavitù
Norwegian Slaveri, Slavebinde, Slavehold, Slavebinding

Ontology: Organ Trafficking (C3658318)

Definition (MSH) Criminal activity that occurs in three broad categories. Firstly, cases where traffickers force or deceive the victims into giving up an organ. Secondly, there are cases where victims formally or informally agree to sell an organ and are cheated because they are not paid for the organ or are paid less than the promised price. Thirdly, vulnerable persons are treated for an ailment, which may or may not exist and thereupon organs are removed without the victim's knowledge.
Concepts Human-caused Phenomenon or Process (T068)
MSH D064877
English Traffickings, Organ, Organ Trafficking, Organ Traffickings, Trafficking, Organ
Czech obchodování s lidskými orgány, obchodování s orgány
French Trafic d'organes
German Organhandel
Italian Traffico di organi
Norwegian Kriminell organhandel

Ontology: Human Trafficking (C3658341)

Definition (MSH) Recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. (UN. Protocol to prevent, suppress and punish trafficking in persons, especially women and children, supplementing the United Nations convention against transnational organized crime. General Assembly resolution 55/25. United Nations General Assembly, 2000)
Concepts Human-caused Phenomenon or Process (T068)
MSH D064410
English Human Traffickings, Traffickings, Human, Trafficking, Human, Human Trafficking
Czech obchod s lidmi, obchod s bílým masem
French Trafic d'êtres humains, Trafic des êtres humains, Traite d'êtres humains, Traite des êtres humains
German Menschenhandel
Italian Traffico di esseri umani, Tratta di persone, Tratta di esseri umani
Norwegian Menneskehandel