II. Epidemiology

  1. More common in boys

III. Pathophysiology

  1. Inflammatory bone changes associated with pathogenic Bacteria
    1. Staphylococcus aureus is most common cause in Pediatric Osteomyelitis
  2. Typically acute hematogenous spread to Traumatized bone
    1. Most common in children under age 5 (50% of cases)
    2. Most commonly affects the highly vascular metaphyses of long bone

IV. Symptoms

  1. Presentation within two weeks of symptom onset
  2. Fever
  3. Irritability or lethargy

V. Signs

  1. Systemic signs of infection
  2. Pediatric Limp
  3. Femur, tibia and fibula account for 50% of Osteomyelitis cases in children
  4. Local signs of infection
    1. Tenderness on palpation over involved bone
    2. Localized inflammation with erythema and swelling
    3. Decreased range of motion of adjacent joints

VI. Labs

  1. See Osteomyelitis
  2. ESR and CRP may be early indicators of Osteomyelitis (albeit non-specific)

VII. Imaging

  1. See Osteomyelitis
  2. XRays are often normal for first 2-3 weeks

VIII. Diagnosis

IX. Management

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