II. Efficacy: Accuracy of Testing

  1. Tests with high sensitivity and Specificity
    1. Biophysical Profile (BPP)
  2. Tests with high sensitivity (but high False Positives)
    1. Nonstress Test (NST)
    2. Contraction Stress Test (CST or OCT)

III. Types: Birth Defect Screening

V. Types: Intrapartum Fetal Assessment

  1. Fetal Heart Tracing
    1. Continuous Electronic Fetal Monitoring (CEFM)
    2. Structured Intermittent Auscultation (SIA)
  2. Manual Fetal Scalp Stimulation
  3. Fetal Acoustic Stimulation
  4. Other measures that are not often performed
    1. Fetal Scalp pH Sampling
      1. Prolonged sample to result time (approaches 18 minutes)
      2. Inadequate sample rate as high as 10%
    2. Fetal lactate scalp sampling
      1. Rapid turn around (2 minutes), but does not alter newborn outcomes
      2. East (2015) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (5):CD006174 [PubMed]
    3. Fetal Pulse Oximetry
      1. Decreases second stage operative Vaginal Delivery rates
      2. Does not alter newborn outcomes
      3. East (2006) Am J Obstet Gynecol 194(3): 606.e1-606.e16 [PubMed]
    4. Fetal Electrocardiograms
      1. Does not alter newborn outcomes
      2. No change in Cesarean Section or operative Vaginal Delivery rates
      3. Belfort (2015) N Engl J Med 373(7): 632-41 [PubMed]
      4. Neilson (2015) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (12): CD000116 [PubMed]
  5. References
    1. Visser (2015) Int J Gynecol Obstet 131(1): 25-9 [PubMed]

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Related Studies

Ontology: Fetal Monitoring (C0015945)

Definition (MSH) Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
Concepts Health Care Activity (T058)
MSH D005323
ICD10 1341
SnomedCT 252947009, 177232004, 387672006
CPT 59051, 59050
English Fetal Monitoring, Fetal Monitorings, Monitoring, Fetal, Monitorings, Fetal, fetal monitoring, Monitoring;foetal, fetus monitoring, obstetrical services fetal monitoring (treatment), obstetrical services fetal monitoring, Fetal monitoring, Foetal monitoring, Fetal monitoring, not otherwise specified, Monitoring;fetal, foetal monitoring
Dutch foetus monitoring, foetale monitoring, Bewaking, foetale, Monitoring, foetale
German Monitorieren des Feten, Monitorieren eines Foeten, Fetale Überwachung, Fötale Überwachung, Überwachung, fetale
Portuguese Monitorização fetal, Monitorização do feto, Monitoramento Fetal, Monitorização Fetal
Swedish Fosterövervakning
Japanese タイジモニタリング, 胎児モニタリング, 監視-胎児, 胎児監視, モニタリング-胎児
Czech fétus - monitorování, Monitoring plodu
Finnish Sikiön seuranta
French Monitorage foetomaternel, Monitorage foeto-maternel, Surveillance de l'activité foetale, Monitorage foetal, Monitoring foetal
Polish Monitorowanie płodu
Hungarian Magzati monitorozás, Foetalis monitorozás
Norwegian Føtal overvåkning, Fosterovervåking, Fosterovervåkning, Føtal overvåking
Spanish monitoreo fetal, Monitorización fetal, Monitoreo Fetal, Monitorización Fetal
Italian Monitoraggio fetale

Ontology: Prenatal Testing (C1456692)

Definition (MEDLINEPLUS)

Prenatal testing provides information about your baby's health before he or she is born. Some routine tests during pregnancy also check on your health. At your first prenatal visit, your healthcare provider will test for a number of things, including problems with your blood, signs of infections, and whether you are immune to rubella (German measles) and chickenpox.

Throughout your pregnancy, your healthcare provider may suggest a number of other tests, too. Some tests are suggested for all women, such as screenings for gestational diabetes, Down syndrome, and HIV. Other tests might be offered based on your:

  • Age
  • Personal or family health history
  • Ethnic background
  • Results of routine tests

Some tests are screening tests. They detect risks for or signs of possible health problems in you or your baby. Based on screening test results, your doctor might suggest diagnostic tests. Diagnostic tests confirm or rule out health problems in you or your baby.

Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health

Concepts Health Care Activity (T058)
English Prenatal Testing