II. Causes

  1. Cardiovascular agents
    1. Amiodarone
    2. Clofibrate
    3. Gemfibrozil
    4. Statin medications (e.g. Atorvastatin, Simvastatin)
      1. See Statin-Induced Myopathy
  2. Chemotherapeutics
    1. Vincristine
    2. Hydroxyurea
  3. Gastrointestinal Agents
    1. Cimetidine
    2. Ipecac or Emetine
    3. Omeprazole (Prilosec)
  4. Infectious Disease Agents
    1. Interferon alpha
    2. Fluoroquinolones (e.g. Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin)
    3. Penicillin
    4. Sulfonamides
    5. HIV Medications (Antiretroviral agents)
      1. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
        1. Zidovudine (AZT)
        2. Lamivudine
        3. Stavudine
      2. Protease Inhibitors
        1. Indinavir
        2. Saquinavir
        3. Ritonavir
  5. Metabolic Agents
    1. Antithyroid medications
      1. Methimazole
      2. Propylthiouracil
    2. Corticosteroids or Glucocorticoids (e.g. Prednisone)
      1. Steroid-Induced Myopathy
    3. Leuprolide (Lupron)
  6. Neurologic Agents
    1. Phenytoin (Dilantin)
  7. Rheumatologic Agents
    1. Colchicine
    2. Chloroquine
    3. Hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil)
    4. Penicillamine
    5. NSAIDs
      1. Niflumic acid
      2. Phenylbutazone
  8. Substances of Abuse
    1. Alcohol
    2. Cocaine
  9. Miscellaneous
    1. Ruptured silicone gel Breast Implants
    2. Medications that significantly impact Serum Potassium or Serum Calcium levels

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