II. Definitions

  1. Cerebrum (Telencephalon)
    1. Largest portion of the Central Nervous System, containing ~15 billion Neurons
    2. Cerebrum contains the cerebral cortex divided into two hemispheres interconnected by the corpus callosum
    3. Most people, even those who are left handed, have a dominant left hemisphere.
      1. Asymmetric higher level functions (e.g. language) are controlled only by the dominant hemisphere
    4. Each Cerebral Hemisphere is further divided into lobes (Frontal Lobe, Parietal Lobe, Occipital Lobe and Temporal Lobe)
    5. The Cerebrum also includes the subcortical structures ( Hippocampus, Basal Ganglia, Amygdala, Olfactory Bulb)

III. Background

  1. Many pathways, such as movement and Sensation, speech and language, Vision and Hearing are well defined.
    1. Many cerebral regions have been well mapped histologically (e.g. Brodmann Areas) for more than a century
    2. Modern imaging such as functional MRI have further defined these pathways and regions
    3. Neurologic roots of personality, emotion, behavior, pleasure are only roughly mapped
  2. Two Cerebral Hemispheres are each divided into 4 lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital.
    1. Symmetric functions (e.g. movement, Sensation)
      1. Each hemisphere sends and receives signals to the opposite side of the body.
    2. Asymmetric cerebral functions (e.g. speech and language)
      1. Left hemisphere is dominant in 95% of right handed and 70% of left handed patients
      2. Localized to the dominant hemisphere

IV. Anatomy

  1. Consistent anatomical landmarks (divide the cerebral lobes into further identifiable regions and maps)
    1. Brain Gyri (convolutions or ridges)
    2. Brain sulci and Brain Fissures (involutions or depressions)
  2. Brodmann Areas
    1. neuroBrodmannMedial.png
    2. neuroBrodmannLateral.png
    3. Established brain regions by histology in the early 1900s by German researcher (Brodmann)
    4. See Brodmann Areas of Frontal Lobe
    5. See Brodmann Areas of Parietal Lobe
    6. See Brodmann Areas of Temporal Lobe
    7. See Brodmann Areas of Occipital Lobe
  3. Brain Lobes
    1. Frontal Lobe
      1. Anterior to the central sulcus of Rolando (where the Frontal Lobe meets the Parietal Lobe)
      2. Function includes personality and verbal expression, as well as motor activity in its posterior aspect
    2. Parietal Lobe
      1. Inputs for sensory information including the understanding of speech
      2. Motor and sensory regions are organized in the form a distorted human (Cortical Homunculus)
        1. Disproportionately represented large head and hands
        2. Motor (posterior Frontal Lobe)
        3. Sensory (anterior Parietal Lobe)
    3. Occipital Lobe
      1. Occipital Lobe primarily processes visual input
    4. Temporal Lobe
      1. Inferior to the Lateral Fissue of Sylvia (where the Temporal Lobe meets the Frontal Lobe and Parietal Lobe)
      2. Temporal Lobe relates to behavior and memory
  4. Internal Capsule
    1. Bundles of axons coursing between the cerebral cortex and the Brainstem (one for each hemisphere)
    2. Composed of three parts: Anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu
    3. Vascular supply via the Anterior Circulation
      1. Supplied by small vessels (anterior Choroidal artery, medial striate artery, lateral striate artery)
      2. Hemorrhage may occur in the supplying vessels with Severe Hypertension
      3. CVA in this region (despite small distribution) may result in significant neurologic deficits
  5. Subcortical Region (Subcortex, Diencephalon)
    1. Cerebellum
    2. Basal Ganglia
    3. Thalamus
    4. Hypothalamus
    5. Pituitary Gland

V. Anatomy: Images

  1. Broad overview - Lobes
    1. neuroBrainLobesGrayBB728.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. neurocnsgeneralanatomy.png
  2. Miscellaneous
    1. neuroBrainXsGrayBB715.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. neuroBrainXsGrayBB716.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    3. neuroBrainXsGrayBB717.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    4. neuroBrainXsGrayBB718.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    5. neuroBrainXsGrayBB720.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    6. neuroBrainInferiorGrayBB724.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    7. neuroTemporalLobeGrayBB730.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    8. neuroFrontLobeLtGrayBB729.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    9. neuroBrainInsulaGrayBB731.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    10. neuroRhinencephalonGrayBB732.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    11. neuroCorpusCallosumGrayBB733.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    12. neuroStriatumGrayBB741.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    13. neuroBrainXsGrayBB742.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    14. neuroBrainXsGrayBB743.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    15. neuroBrainXsGrayBB744.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    16. neuroBrainXsGrayBB745.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    17. neuroInternalCapsuleTractsGrayBB746.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    18. neuroFornixGrayBB747.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    19. neuroFornixInferiorGrayBB748.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    20. neuroBrainTractsGrayBB751.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    21. neuroBrainXsGrayBB753.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    22. neuroCerebralCortexMicroGrayBB754.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    23. neuroBrainIllustrationXsGrayBB768.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    24. NeuroFalxCerebriGrayBB567.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    25. neuroFalxCerebriGrayBB765.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)

VII. References

  1. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 99-101

Neuro Atlas (FPnotebook.com) Open in New Window

Images: Related links to external sites (from Bing)

Related Studies

Ontology: Internal capsule of brain (C0152341)

Definition (FMA) Internal capsule is an organ subdivision of the telencephalon which is made up primarily of myelinated axonal neural tissue (white matter). The internal capsule is a major set of fiber bundles lateral to the thalamus and caudate nucleus and medial to the putamen and globus pallidus. It projects dorsally to the white matter underlying the cerebral cortex.
Definition (NCI) White matter pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the cerebral cortex and the brainstem. It consists of three distinct parts: the anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu. (MeSH)
Definition (MSH) WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D020772
SnomedCT 85637007
English Internal capsule structure of brain (body structure), Internal capsule, Internal capsule structure (body structure), IC - Internal capsule, Internal capsule structure of brain, Internal capsule of brain, Internal capsule radiations, Capsule, Internal, Capsules, Internal, Internal Capsule, Internal Capsules, internal capsule of brain, capsula interna, capsule internal, internal capsule, ic, internal capsule radiations, internal capsule (Burdach), Capsula interna, Capsula Interna, Internas, Capsula, Capsula Internas, Interna, Capsula, Internal capsule structure, Internal capsule of brain, NOS
Swedish Capsula interna
Spanish estructura de la cápsula interna (estructura corporal), estructura de la cápsula interna del cerebro, estructura de la cápsula interna, estructura de la cápsula interna del cerebro (estructura corporal), cápsula cerebral interna, cápsula interna del cerebro, Cápsula Interna
Czech capsula interna
Finnish Sisäkotelo
Russian MOZGA GOLOVNOGO VNUTRENNIAIA KAPSULA, МОЗГА ГОЛОВНОГО ВНУТРЕННЯЯ КАПСУЛА
Polish Torebka wewnętrzna
Norwegian Capsula interna
French Capsule interne
German Capsula interna, Innere Kapsel
Italian Capsula interna
Dutch Capsula interna
Portuguese Cápsula Interna

Ontology: Cerebral hemisphere structure (body structure) (C0228174)

Definition (FMA) One of two bilateral, largely symmetrical organ subdivisions within the telencephalon which contain the cerebral cortex and cerebral white matter.
Definition (NCI_NCI-GLOSS) The largest part of the brain. It is divided into two hemispheres, or halves, called the cerebral hemispheres. Areas within the cerebrum control muscle functions and also control speech, thought, emotions, reading, writing, and learning.
Definition (NCI) The part of the brain that controls muscle functions and also controls speech, thought, emotions, reading, writing, and learning. The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body.
Definition (NCI_CDISC) One half of the cerebrum, the part of the brain that controls muscle functions and also controls speech, thought, emotions, reading, writing, and learning. The right hemisphere controls the muscles on the left side of the body, and the left hemisphere controls the muscles on the right side of the body. (NCI)
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D054022
SnomedCT 86522006, 372073000
LNC LP33972-8
English Cerebrum, Cerebral, Cerebral Hemispheres, Cerebral hemisphere, cerebral hemispheres, cerebral hemisphere, Hemispherium cerebri, Hemispherium cerebralis, hemispheria cerebri, Cerebral hemispheres, cerebrum, CEREBRUM, Cerebral hemisphere structure, Cerebral hemisphere structure (body structure), Cerebral hemisphere, NOS, Brain Hemisphere, Cerebral Hemisphere
French Hémisphère cérébral, Hémisphères cérébraux
Italian Emisferi cerebrali
Czech mozkové hemisféry
Norwegian Storhjernehalvdeler, Storhjernehemisfærer
Spanish hemisferio cerebral, estructura hemisférica cerebral (estructura corporal), estructura hemisférica cerebral

Ontology: Cerebrum (C0242202)

Definition (CSP) part of the brain derived from the embryonic telencephalon and consisting of the cortex and white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, the basal ganglia, and certain other basal structures which are a part of the rhinencephalon.
Definition (MSH) Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
MSH D054022 , D013687
SnomedCT 222036002, 223054006, 83678007
LNC LP7131-8, MTHU003022
Portuguese Cérebro, Hemisférios Cerebrais
Spanish Cerebro, estructura cerebral [dup] (estructura corporal), Hemisferios Cerebrales, cerebro supratentorial (estructura corporal), cerebro supratentorial, cerebro, estructura cerebral (estructura corporal), estructura cerebral
Finnish Isoaivot
French Cerveau, Cerebrum
German Cerebrum
Italian Cerebrum
Russian MOZG BOL'SHOI, МОЗГ БОЛЬШОЙ
English Supratentorial brain structure, supratentorial brain, cerebrum, Cerebrum (body structure), Cerebral structure, Cerebral structure (body structure), Supratentorial brain structure (body structure), Supratentorial brain, Supratentorial brain, NOS, Supratentorial brain (body structure), Cerebrum
Swedish Cerebrum
Czech přední mozek, koncový mozek
Croatian Not Translated[Cerebrum]
Latvian Not Translated[Cerebrum]
Polish Mózg, Półkule mózgu, Półkula mózgu lewa, Półkula mózgu prawa
Japanese 大脳半球-右, 大脳, 大脳半球-左, 大脳半球
Norwegian Storhjerne, Cerebrum
Dutch Cerebrum

Ontology: Brodmann area (C0599720)

Definition (NCI) One of 47 numbered regions within a map of the cerebral cortex. Each is characterized by a particular cell organization and also corresponds to a particular cortical function.(Dr. Joseph A. Thie)
Concepts Body Location or Region (T029)
SnomedCT 384717008
English Brodmann's area, Brodmann area, area brodmanns, brodmann's area, Brodmann's Area, Brodmann's areas, Brodmann's cortical areas, areas of Brodmann, cortical areas of Brodmann, cortical maps of Brodmann, Brodmann area (body structure)
Spanish área de Brodmann (estructura corporal), área de Brodmann