II. Definitions

  1. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
    1. Central Nervous System floats in a nutrient rich, clear cerebrospinal fluid
    2. CSF typically contains no white or Red Blood Cells (WBCs or RBCs) and low levels of Protein
    3. CSF is produced in the Choroid plexus of fluid filled chambers known as ventricles
  2. Choroid Plexus
    1. Produces cerebrospinal fluid in the walls of the Cerebral Ventricles

III. Anatomy: Cerebrospinal spinal fluid pathway

  1. Images
    1. neuroCerebralVentricle.png
  2. General
    1. CSF is produced in the Choroid plexus of the two Lateral Ventricles
    2. CSF flows from Lateral Ventricles via foramina to the central Third Ventricle
    3. From the central Third Ventricle to the Aqueduct of Sylvius and then the Fourth Ventricle
    4. CSF flows into the subarachnoid space and into the Cerebral Sinuses
    5. CSF returns to the venous system via reabsorption at the arachnoid villi (esp. in Superior Sagittal Sinus)
  3. Lateral Ventricles (left and right)
    1. Most superior ventricle
    2. Cerebrospinal fluid originates here (and in the third and Fourth Ventricles)
    3. Drains via the interventricular foramina (foramina of monro) into the Third Ventricle
  4. Third Ventricle (midline)
    1. Drains via the Aqueduct of Sylvius into the Fourth Ventricle
  5. Fourth Ventricle (midline, posterio fossa)
    1. Drains out of the intracranial cavity into the subarachnoid space via three openings
    2. Middle Foramen of Magendie (midline) openings
    3. Lateral Foramena of Luschka (right and left) openings
  6. Subarachnoid Space
    1. CSF flows into the subarachnoid space
    2. CSF drains into the Superior Sagittal Sinus via arachnoid villi or granules (small holes in the sinus wall)
  7. Subarachnoid Cistern
    1. Wider pockets of subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid
    2. Largest cistern is in the lumbar region (below the L2 Vertebrae)
      1. Allows for safer Lumbar Puncture

IV. Pathophysiology

  1. Hydrocephalus
    1. Occurs when CSF flow is obstructed, leading to expansion of the Lateral Ventricles
  2. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    1. Ruptured Cerebral Aneurysm results in CSF Red Blood Cells
    2. With time, yellowing develops of the spinal fluid (Xanthochromia)

V. Anatomy: Ventricles

  1. neuroCerebralVentricle.png
  2. neuroThirdVentricleGrayBB723.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  3. neuroVentriclesGrayBB734.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  4. neuroVentriclesGrayBB735.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  5. neuroVentriclesGrayBB736.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  6. neuroLateralVentriclePosteriorCornuGrayBB738.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  7. neuroLateralVentricleInferiorHornGrayBB749.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  8. neuroThirdVentricleGrayBB750.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)

VI. References

  1. Gilman (1989) Manter and Gatz Essentials of Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology, Davis, p. 232-7
  2. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Neuroanatomy, Medmaster, p. 6-15
  3. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 102-3

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Related Studies

Ontology: Cerebral aqueduct (C0007769)

Definition (NCI) A channel that connects the third and fourth ventricles of the brain.
Definition (MSH) Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.
Concepts Body Space or Junction (T030)
MSH D002535
SnomedCT 279249003, 80447000
English Aqueduct of Sylvius, Aqueduct, Cerebral, Aqueducts, Cerebral, Cerebral Aqueduct, Cerebral Aqueducts, Sylvius Aqueduct, Cerebral aqueduct (body structure), Structure of aqueduct of Sylvius (body structure), Structure of cerebral aqueduct (body structure), Structure of cerebral aqueduct, aqueduct of the mesencephalon/midbrain, Aqueduct (Sylvius), Cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius, Aqueduct of midbrain, aqueduct, aqueduct of sylvius, sylvian aqueduct, sylvius aqueduct, aqueducts, mesencephalic aqueduct, aqueduct of Sylvius, aqueduct (Sylvius), Sylvian aqueduct, cerebral aqueduct of Sylvius, mesencephalic duct, cerebral aqueduct, Aq, cerebral aqueduct (Sylvius), Iter, Aqueductus (Sylvii), aquaeductus mesencephali (Sylvii), Aquaeductus Sylvii, Aquaeductus cerebri, Aqueductus cerebri, Aqueductus Sylvius, Aqueductus mesencephali, Aquaductus mesencephali, Aqueducts, Mesencephalic, Sylvian Aqueducts, Mesencephalic Aqueduct, Mesencephalic Ducts, Cerebrus, Aqueductus, Aqueduct, Mesencephalic, Mesencephalic Duct, Aqueductus Cerebri, Cerebri, Aqueductus, Aqueductus Cerebrus, Sylvian Aqueduct, Aqueduct, Sylvian, Aqueducts, Sylvian, Duct, Mesencephalic, Mesencephalic Aqueducts, Ducts, Mesencephalic, Aqueduct, Iter of Sylvius, Cerebral aqueduct, Aqueduct of Sylvius, NOS, Aqueduct, NOS, Structure of aqueduct of Sylvius
Swedish Hjärnakvedukt
Spanish estructura de acueducto cerebral (estructura corporal), estructura de acueducto cerebral, estructura del acueducto de Silvio (estructura corporal), estructura del acueducto de Silvio, Acueducto del Mesencéfalo, Acueducto Mesencefálico, Acueducto Cerebral, acueducto cerebral (estructura corporal), acueducto cerebral, acueducto de Silvio, acueducto, iter de Silvio, Acueducto de Silvio
Czech aquaeductus cerebri
Finnish Aivonesteviemäri
Italian Acquedotto di Silvio, Acquedotto cerebrale
Portuguese Aqueduto do Mesencéfalo, Aqueduto Cerebral, Aqueduto Mesencefálico, Aqueduto de Sylvius, Aqueduto de Silvio
Polish Wodociąg mózgu, Wodociąg Sylwiusza
Japanese 中脳水道, Sylvius導水管
Norwegian Hjernens akvedukt, Aquaeductus Sylvii, Cerebral Aqueduct, Akvedukten, Aqueductus cerebri
German Aquaeductus cerebri, Aquaeductus mesencephali, Aquaeductus sylvii
Dutch Aquaduct, Aquaeductus Sylvii, Aquaeductus cerebri, Aquaeductus mesencephali
French Aqueduc cérébral, Aqueduc de Sylvius, Aqueduc du cerveau, Aqueduc du mésencéphale

Ontology: Cerebral Ventricles (C0007799)

Definition (SCTSPA) Los cuatro ventrículos cerebrales, incluidos ambos ventrículos laterales, el tercer ventrículo y el cuarto ventrículo
Definition (SNOMEDCT_US) The four ventricles of the brain, including the two lateral ventricles, the third ventricle, and the fourth ventricle
Definition (NCI_CDISC) The four connected cavities (hollow spaces) centrally located within the brain that connect posteriorly with the central canal of the spinal cord. (NCI)
Definition (NCI) The four connected cavities (hollow spaces) centrally located within the brain that connect posteriorly with the central canal of the spinal cord.
Definition (MSH) Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).
Definition (CSP) cavities within the brain which are filled with cerebrospinal fluid, including the two lateral, the third, and linked by the aqueduct, the fourth ventricles; lined by ependyma which in certain regions, is invaginated by vascular fringes of pia mater to form the choroid plexuses.
Concepts Body Space or Junction (T030)
MSH D002552
SnomedCT 35764002
LNC LP7130-0, MTHU024384
English Cerebral Ventricles, Ventricle, Cerebral, Ventricles, Cerebral, Cerebral Ventricle, cerebral ventricle, Cerebral ventricles, brain ventricle, brain ventricles, ventricle brain, system ventricular, ventricles of the brain, cerebral ventricles, ventricular system, ventricular systems, Brain--Ventricles, BRAIN VENTRICLE, Cerebral Ventricular System, Cerebral ventricle, Brain ventricle structure (body structure), Brain ventricle structure, Brain ventricle, Cerebral ventricle, NOS, Ventricles (Cerebral), Ventricles, Brain Ventricle, Ventricle of Brain, Ventricle, Brain, Ventricles, Brain
Swedish Hjärnventriklar
Czech mozek - komory
Finnish Aivokammiot
Latvian Ventrikuli, galvas smadzeņu, Galvas smadzeņu ventrikuli
Polish Komora mózgu, Komory mózgu
Norwegian Hjerneventrikler
Spanish Ventrículos Encefálicos, estructura de ventrículo cerebral (estructura corporal), estructura de ventrículo cerebral, ventrículo cerebral, ventrículo del cerebro, Ventrículos Cerebrales
Portuguese Ventrículos Encefálicos, Forame Interventricular, Ventrículos Cerebrais
German Hirnventrikel
Italian Ventricoli cerebrali
Dutch Foramen van Monro, Hersenventrikels, Ventrikel, hersen-
French Ventricule cérébral, Ventricules cérébraux

Ontology: Third ventricle structure (C0149555)

Definition (NCI) A centrally placed component of the ventricular system of the brain located in the diencephalon. Cerebrospinal fluid from the lateral ventricles flows into the third ventricle via the foramina of Monroe and exits the third ventricle via the aqueduct of Sylvius. The thalamus and hypothalamus border the lateral walls of the third ventricle.
Definition (MSH) A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.
Concepts Body Space or Junction (T030)
MSH D020542
SnomedCT 49841001
LNC LP7287-8, MTHU003037
English Third ventricle of brain, Third Ventricle, Third Ventricles, Ventricles, Third, Head.third ventricle, third ventricle of brain, brain third ventricle, third ventricles, third ventricle brain, 3V, 3rd ventricle, third ventricle, Ventriculus tertius, 3rd Ventricles, Ventricle, 3rd, 3rd Ventricle, Ventricles, 3rd, Third ventricle, Third ventricle structure (body structure), Third ventricle structure, Third ventricle, NOS, Ventricle, Third, Third Cerebral Ventricle, Third Ventricle of Brain
Swedish Tredje hjärnventrikel
Czech ventriculus tertius, třetí mozková komora, 3. mozková komora, III. mozková komora
Finnish Kolmas aivokammio
Polish Komora trzecia
Norwegian Tredje ventrikkel, Ventriculus tertius
Spanish estructura del tercer ventrículo (estructura corporal), estructura del tercer ventrículo, tercer ventrículo, Tercer Ventrículo
French Troisième ventricule
German Dritter Ventrikel, Ventriculus tertius
Italian Terzo ventricolo
Dutch Derde ventrikel, Ventrikel, derde
Portuguese Terceiro Ventrículo

Ontology: Fourth ventricle structure (C0149556)

Definition (NCI) A diamond-shaped cavity filled with cerebrospinal fluid within the pons extending between the obex in the caudal medulla and the aqueduct of Sylvius in the cerebellum.
Definition (MSH) An irregularly shaped cavity in the RHOMBENCEPHALON, located between the MEDULLA OBLONGATA; the PONS; and the isthmus in front, and the CEREBELLUM behind. It is continuous with the central canal of the cord below and with the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT above, and through its lateral and median apertures it communicates with the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
Concepts Body Space or Junction (T030)
MSH D020546
SnomedCT 35918002
LNC LP7283-7, MTHU003032
Swedish Fjärde hjärnventrikel
Czech čtvrtá mozková komora, ventriculus quartus
Finnish Neljäs aivokammio
English Fourth Ventricle, Fourth Ventricles, Ventricle, Fourth, Ventricles, Fourth, Head.fourth ventricle, head fourth ventricle, fourth brain ventricle, brain fourth ventricle, fourth ventricle of brain, fourth ventricle brain, fourth ventricle, 4V, 4th ventricle, Ventriculus quartus, Ventriculus quartuus, Ventricles, 4th, Quarto Ventricolo, Quarto Ventricolos, Ventricle, 4th, 4th Ventricles, Ventricolo, Quarto, Ventricolos, Quarto, 4th Ventricle, Fourth ventricle, Fourth ventricle of brain, Fourth ventricle structure (body structure), Fourth ventricle structure, Fourth ventricle, NOS, Fourth Ventricle of Brain, Fourth Ventricle of the Brain
Polish Komora czwarta
Norwegian Ventriculus quartus, Fjerde ventrikkel
Spanish cuarto ventrículo de cerebro, cuarto ventrículo, estructura del cuarto ventrículo (estructura corporal), estructura del cuarto ventrículo, Cuarto Ventrículo
French Quatrième ventricule
German Ventriculus quartus, Vierter Ventrikel
Italian Quarto ventricolo
Dutch Ventrikel, vierde, Vierde ventrikel
Portuguese Quarto Ventrículo

Ontology: Lateral ventricle structure (C0152279)

Definition (NCI) The rostral extensions of the ventricular system of the brain consisting of two cavities, one on each side of the brain within the central regions of each cerebral hemisphere. Cerebrospinal fluid flows from the lateral ventricles into the centrally third ventricle via the foramen of Monroe.
Definition (MSH) Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.
Concepts Body Space or Junction (T030)
MSH D020547
SnomedCT 66720007
LNC LP7285-2, MTHU003035
English Lateral ventricle of brain, LV - Lateral ventricle, Lateral Ventricles, Head.lateral cerebral ventricles, brain lateral ventricle, brain lateral ventricles, lateral ventricles, lateral ventricle, LV, Ventriculus lateralis, Lateral ventricle, Lateral ventricle structure (body structure), Lateral ventricle structure, Lateral ventricle, NOS, Lateral Ventricle, Ventricle, Lateral, Ventricles, Lateral, Lateral Ventricle of Brain
Swedish Laterala ventriklar
Czech ventriculi laterales, postranní komory
Finnish Sivukammiot
Polish Komory boczne
Norwegian Ventriculi laterales, Sideventrikler, Laterale ventrikler
Spanish estructura del ventrículo lateral (estructura corporal), estructura del ventrículo lateral, ventrículo lateral, Ventrículos Laterales
French Ventricules latéraux, Ventricule latéral
German Seitenventrikel, Ventriculus lateralis
Italian Ventricoli laterali
Dutch Laterale ventrikels, Ventrikel, lateraal
Portuguese Ventrículos Laterais

Ontology: Lateral aperture of fourth ventricle (C0152287)

Definition (NCI) One of two openings into the subarachnoid space on the lateral surface of the fourth ventricle.
Concepts Body Space or Junction (T030)
SnomedCT 281161007, 63426007
English foramen of Luschka, Lateral aperture, Apertura lateralis, Foramen of Key and Retzius, lateral aperture, LA4V, lateral aperture of the fourth ventricle, Lateral aperture of fourth ventricle, Apertura lateralis (Luschka), Apertura lateralis ventriculi quarti, Foramen Luschkae, Foramen of Luschka (body structure), Key-Retzius lateral aperture, Luschka's foramen, Lateral aperture of fourth ventricle (body structure), Foramen of Luschka
Spanish agujero de Luschka (estructura corporal), agujero de Luschka, apertura lateral de Key - Retzius, apertura lateral del cuarto ventrículo (estructura corporal), apertura lateral del cuarto ventrículo

Ontology: Foramen of Magendie (C0152288)

Definition (NCI) A large opening in the midline of the roof of the posterior interior section of the fourth ventricle.
Concepts Body Space or Junction (T030)
SnomedCT 40891008, 279449001
English Foramen of Majendie, Apertura mediana, Med aperture fourth ventricle, Magendie's Foramen, MA4V, median aperture, median aperture of the fourth ventricle, foramen of Magendie, apertura medialis ventriculi quarti (Magendii), foramen mediale, Apertura mediana (Magendie), Foramen Magendii, Apertura mediana ventriculi quarti, Median aperture of fourth ventricle (body structure), Foramen of Magendie, Foramen of Magendie (body structure), Median aperture of fourth ventricle, Magendie's foramen
Spanish apertura media del cuarto ventrículo, apertura media del cuarto ventrículo (estructura corporal), agujero de Magendie (estructura corporal), agujero de Magendie

Ontology: Structure of subarachnoid cistern (C0228144)

Concepts Body Space or Junction (T030)
SnomedCT 61878005
English Set of subarachnoid cisterns, Subarachnoid cisterns, Cisternae subarachnoideae, Subarachnoid cisterns set, Subarachnoid cistern, Structure of subarachnoid cistern (body structure), Structure of subarachnoid cistern, Subarachnoid Cistern
Spanish cisterna subaracnoidea, estructura de la cisterna subaracnoidea (estructura corporal), estructura de la cisterna subaracnoidea

Ontology: Structure of ependyma of aqueduct of Sylvius (C0228170)

Concepts Body Part, Organ, or Organ Component (T023)
SnomedCT 13031003
English Ependyma of aqueduct of Sylvius, Structure of ependyma of aqueduct of Sylvius (body structure), Structure of ependyma of aqueduct of Sylvius
Spanish epéndimo del acueducto de Silvio, estructura del epéndimo del acueducto de Silvio (estructura corporal), estructura del epéndimo del acueducto de Silvio

Ontology: Choroid plexus of cerebral hemisphere (C2326827)

Concepts Anatomical Structure (T017)
English Plexus choroideus, Plexus choroidae, Choroid plexus, Chorioid plexus, Choroid plexus of cerebral hemisphere