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Dysuria

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Dysuria, Urethritis

  • Definitions
  1. Dysuria
    1. Burning or stinging of the Urethra with voiding
  2. Urethritis
    1. Urethral inflammation
  • Causes
  • By Cohort
  • Causes
  • Infectious
  1. Urinary Tract Infection
    1. Cystitis
    2. Pyelonephritis
    3. Urethritis
  2. Sexually Transmitted Infections
    1. White discharge
      1. NeisseriaGonorrhea
    2. Watery or no discharge
      1. Chlamydia trachomatis (15-40% of cases)
      2. Gut Flora (following anal intercourse)
      3. Genital Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV II)
      4. Mycoplasma genitalium (15-20% of Non-Gonococcal Urethritis causes in women)
      5. Ureaplasma urealyticum
      6. Trichomonas vaginalis
  3. Other genitourinary infections
    1. Women
      1. See Dysuria in Women
      2. Vulvovaginitis (e.g. Bacterial Vaginosis, Yeast Vaginitis)
      3. Cervicitis
    2. Men
      1. See Dysuria in Men
      2. Prostatitis
      3. Epididymitis or Orchitis
  • Causes
  • Dermatologic
  • Causes
  • Medication and food causes of Dysuria
  1. Medications
    1. Dopamine
    2. Cantharidin
    3. Ticarcillin
    4. Penicillin G
    5. Cyclophosphamide
    6. Opioids
    7. Ketamine
    8. Nifedipine
  2. Food and herbal supplement adverse effects
    1. Saw Palmetto
    2. Pumpkin seeds
  • Causes
  • Miscellaneous
  1. Urethral
    1. Urethral stricture
    2. Urethral diverticulum
    3. Reiter's Syndrome
    4. Local Urethral Trauma (e.g. Bicycling, horse back riding)
  2. Bladder
    1. Bladder Cancer
  3. Kidney
    1. Renal Cancer
    2. Nephrolithiasis
  4. Abdomen and Pelvis
    1. Lymphoma
    2. Pelvic Irradiation
    3. Genitourinary foreign body (e.g. stent)
  • Causes
  • Miscellaneous - Women
  • History
  • Characteristics of Dysuria
  1. Timing
    1. Start of void: Urethral source
    2. End of void: Bladder source
  2. Pain location
    1. Cystitis
      1. Bladder and Urethral pain
    2. Bladder Distention
      1. Suprapubic or retropubic pressure
    3. Vaginitis
      1. External pain distribution
    4. Prostatitis (or other deeper pelvic source)
      1. Deep perineal pain
    5. Epididymitis
      1. Testicular Pain
  • History
  • Associated symptoms and contributing factors
  1. Bladder and lower urinary tract symptoms
    1. Urinary Frequency or urinary urgency
    2. Hematuria
    3. Abnormal Urine Odor
    4. Urinary Incontinence
    5. Nocturia
  2. Kidney and upper urinary tract symptoms
    1. Flank Pain
    2. Fever
    3. Nausea or Vomiting
  3. Past medical history
    1. Pyelonephritis
    2. Nephrolithiasis
    3. Sexually Transmitted Infection
    4. Genitourinary procedures
    5. Genitourinary malignancy
  4. Medications and topical agents
    1. Exposures to possible urinary tract irritants or external Contact Dermatitis causes
  5. Additional history in women
    1. Pregnancy, current Contraception and Last Menstrual Period
    2. Vaginal Discharge or vaginal irritation
  6. Additional history in men
    1. Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia
    2. Testicular Pain
  • Exam
  1. Abdominal exam
    1. Abdominal tenderness (e.g. suprapubic tenderness)
    2. Flank tenderness (Costovertebral Angle Tenderness)
    3. Suprapubic fullness (Bladder Distention)
  2. Female genitourinary exam
    1. Vulvar lesions (e.g. vessicles or ulcerations)
    2. Inguinal Lymphadenopathy
    3. Vaginal Discharge
    4. Vaginal Atrophy
    5. Cervical discharge
    6. Cervical motion tenderness
  3. Male genitourinary exam
    1. Penile discharge
    2. Penile Lesions, esp. at meatus (e.g. Vesicles, ulcers)
    3. Inguinal Lymphadenopathy
    4. Epididymal or testicular tenderness
    5. Swollen, tender Prostate
  4. Skin exam
    1. Localized genitourinary dermatitis (e.g. HSV, Contact Dermatitis, chronic inflammatory condition)
  5. Polyarthritis
    1. Gonococcus (associated with scattered Pustules)
    2. Reiter's Syndrome (associated with Conjunctivitis)
  • Labs
  1. Urinalysis
  2. Urine Culture
  3. STD Testing for Urethritis
    1. Gonorrhea PCR
    2. Chlamydia PCR testing
    3. Wet Prep
    4. Trichomonas PCR (NAAT)
    5. Mycoplasma genitalium (CDC approved testing available as of 2019)
      1. Consider in persistent or recurrent Urethritis
    6. Also offer HIV Test, Hepatitis B and Syphilis Test
  • Imaging
  1. Bladder and renal Ultrasound (or Bedside Ultrasound)
    1. Bladder Distention (may also be detected with Bladder scan or post-void residual catheterization)
    2. Hydronephrosis
  2. CT Abdomen and Pelvis without contrast
    1. Nephrolithiasis
  3. CT Abdomen and Pelvis with and without contrast (CT Urogram)
    1. Hematuria evaluation for malignancy
  4. Cystoscopy
    1. Hematuria evaluation for malignancy
    2. Interstitial Cystitis
  • Management
  • General
  1. Symptomatic Management
    1. Phenazopyridine (Pyridium)
  2. Antibiotic indications
    1. Urinary Tract Infection or Pyelonephritis
    2. Sexually Transmitted Infection or Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (see Urethritis below)
    3. Suspected Acute Prostatitis
      1. May be associated with Pelvic Pain, worse on Defecation and with ejaculation
  • Management
  • Urethritis
  1. Treat as Sexually Transmitted Infection
  2. Despite risk of overtreatment, treat for suspected Chlamydia and Gonorrhea (prevents spread, complications)
    1. Gonorrhea management
      1. Ceftriaxone 500 mg IM/IV for 1 dose (1 gram IM/IV if weight > 150 kg, dose increased in 2020) OR
      2. Gentamicin 240 mg IM and Azithromycin 2 g orally for one dose OR
      3. Cefixime 800 mg orally once is an alternative but NOT recommended due to Antibiotic Resistance
    2. Chlamydia management
      1. Doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for 7 days (preferred as of 2020) OR
      2. Azithromycin 1 g orally for 1 dose
    3. References
      1. Cyr (2020) MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 69(50): 1911-6

        1. https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/69/wr/mm6950a6.htm
  3. Other management
    1. Consider Genital Herpes
    2. Treat Trichomonas vaginalis if present
      1. Metronidazole 2 grams orally or 500 mg orally twice daily for 7 days OR
      2. Tinidazole 2 grams orally
  4. As noted above, offer other STD testing (e.g. HIV Test, Syphilis Test)
  5. Treat sexual partners
    1. See Expedited Partner Treatment
  • Management
  • Persistent Dysuria with unremarkable evaluation
  1. Urge Incontinence or Overactive Bladder
    1. Pelvic Floor Exercises and Bladder TrainingExercises
  2. Topical or systemic irritants
    1. Discontinue offending agents
  • ' Consider regional pain sources
    1. Endometriosis
    2. Interstitial Cystitis
  1. Consider empiric treatment for Mycoplasma genitalium if testing is unavailable
    1. Moxifloxacin 400 mg orally daily for 7-14 days OR
    2. Azithromycin 1 gram orally OR
    3. Doxycycline 100 mg orally twice daily for 7 days