Disability

Disability

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Disability, Impairment, Sick Leave

  • Definitions
  1. Impairment (Objective Physiologic Deficit)
    1. Loss of anatomic, physiologic or psychologic function as defined by medical evaluation
    2. Example: Lumbar Disc Herniation
    3. Classifications (e.g. intellectual, language, psychological, ocular, visceral, skeletal, generalized, sensory)
    4. See Impairment Evaluation
  2. Disability (Subjective Functional Deficit)
    1. Activities limited by Impairment (occupation specific)
    2. Example: Difficulty waiting tables
    3. Classifications (e.g. behavior, communication, personal care, locomotion, dexterity, skill)
    4. See Disability Evaluation
  3. Handicap (Social or Environmental Consequences)
    1. Impairment limits role fulfillment
    2. Example: Wheelchair, van or handicapped access required
    3. Classifications (e.g. Physical independence, mobility, occupation, social integration)
  • Epidemiology
  1. Americans with ongoing disabling condition: 56.7 million (2013)
    1. Severe Disability in 38.3 Million adults and 2.6 Million children
  2. Social security administration Disability benefits
    1. New applications per year: 2.5 Million
    2. Disabled workers with benefits in 2012: 8.8 million
    3. Most common disabilities
      1. Back or spine conditions
      2. Arthritis
      3. Heart conditions
    4. Most common limitations
      1. Inability to walk three city blocks
      2. Inability to climb a flight of stairs
  • Risk Factors
  • Groups with disproportionately greater Disability
  1. Minority ethnic group
  2. Elderly
  3. Low socioeconomic group
  4. Children living in poverty
  5. Female headed households
  • Risk Factors
  • Predictors of prolonged recovery
  1. Behaviors
    1. Disability out of proportion to diagnosis
    2. Exaggerated pain behavior or history of Somatization
  2. Family factors
    1. Dysfunctional family
    2. Family History of prolonged Disability
  3. Comorbid conditions
    1. Substance Abuse
    2. Major Depression
  4. Workplace Difficulties
    1. Occupational dissatisfaction
    2. Difficulties with coworkers
    3. Financial or legal hardships