OA

Osteoarthritis

search

Osteoarthritis, Osteoarthrosis, Degenerative Joint Disease, DJD

  • Epidemiology
  1. Most common form of Arthritis
  2. Associated functional Impairment increases with age
  3. Prevalence directly increases with age
    1. Age over 40 years: 70% of U.S. population
    2. Age over 65 years: 80% of U.S. population
    3. See Rheumatologic Conditions in the Elderly
  • Pathophysiology
  1. Primary lesion resides in the articular cartilage
    1. Abnormal cartilage repair and remodeling
    2. Chondrocytes produce proteolytic enzymes
    3. Proteolytic enzymes destroy cartilage
  2. End result
    1. Asymmetric joint cartilage loss
    2. Subchondral sclerosis (bone density increased)
    3. Subchondral cysts
    4. Marginal osteophytes
  • Risk Factors
  1. Age over 50 years old
  2. Female gender
  3. Obesity
  4. Prior joint injury
  5. Job duties with frequent squatting or bending
  6. Osteoarthritis Family History
  7. Repetitive-impact sports (e.g. soccer, football)
  • Etiologies
  1. Primary
    1. Weight bearing joints
      1. Hands
      2. Hips, Knees, and feet
    2. Stressors
      1. Obesity (single most important factor)
      2. Overuse injuries
  2. Secondary
    1. Acute or Chronic Trauma
    2. History of knee meniscectomy
    3. Congenital abnormalities
    4. Rheumatic Conditions
      1. Gouty Arthritis
      2. Rheumatoid Arthritis
      3. Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease (CPPD)
    5. Endocrine Conditions
      1. Diabetes Mellitus
      2. Acromegaly
  • Symptoms
  1. Pain worse later in the day, and better with rest
    1. Pain on motion that worsens with increasing joint usage (gelling)
    2. If morning stiffness is present, is of short duration (<30 minutes)
      1. Contrast with Rheumatoid Arthritis which has morning stiffness >30 minutes
  2. Slowly progressive deformity and variably painful
    1. Initial high-use Joint Pain relieved with rest
    2. Next, pain is constant on affected joint usage
    3. Eventually pain occurs at rest and at night
  3. No systemic manifestations
    1. No Fatigue
    2. No generalized weakness
  4. Associated muscle spasm, contractures and atrophy
  5. Symptoms uncommon before age 40 years old
  6. Asymmetric involvement
  • Signs
  1. Joint Exam
    1. Joint Effusion
    2. Atrophy
    3. Joint instability
    4. Joint tenderness
    5. Crepitation
    6. Limited range of motion
  2. Joints spared (Contrast with Rheumatoid Arthritis)
    1. Wrist spared
    2. Metacarpal-phalangeal joints spared (except thumb)
    3. Elbow spared
    4. Ankle spared (variable involvement)
  3. Joints commonly involved
    1. See Shoulder Osteoarthritis
    2. See Acromioclavicular Osteoarthritis
    3. See Knee Osteoarthritis
    4. See Hip Osteoarthritis
    5. See Foot Osteoarthritis
    6. See Hand Osteoarthritis
      1. Distal interphalangeal joints (Heberden's Nodes)
      2. Proximal interphalangeal joints (Bouchard's Nodes)
      3. First carpometacarpal joint (thumb)
    7. Cervical and Lumbar Spine
      1. Mechanisms
        1. Apophyseal joint Arthritis and Osteophytes
        2. Disc degeneration
      2. Secondary affects
        1. Local muscle spasm
        2. Nerve root impingement with radiculopathy
        3. Cervical stenosis
        4. Lumbar Stenosis (Pseudoclaudication)
  • Labs
  • General (if indicated)
  1. Routine labs are not indicated in typical Osteoarthritis
    1. Obtain for unclear diagnosis
    2. Abnormal results suggest alternative diagnosis
  2. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate normal
  3. C-Reactive Protein normal
  4. Rheumatoid Factor negative
  5. Uric Acid normal
  1. Synovial Fluid appearance
    1. Clear fluid
    2. High viscosity and good mucin
  2. Synovial Fluid Crystals
    1. Basic Calcium Phosphate (BCP) Crystals
    2. Apatite crystals
  3. Synovial Fluid White Blood Cell Count
    1. Non-Inflammatory fluid: 200 - 2000 WBC/mm3
    2. WBC Count usually <500 cells (mostly mononuclear)
  • Imaging
  1. Imaging is not required for Osteoarthritis diagnosis in patients with typical presentations
    1. XRay, MRI Imaging often does not correlate with Osteoarthritis severity and patient function
      1. Kim (2015) BMJ 351:h5983 +PMID:26631296 [PubMed]
  2. Imaging indicated for pre-operative evaluation or if other diagnosis considered
    1. Joint Trauma
    2. Joint Pain at night
    3. Progressive Joint Pain
    4. Family History of other arthritic conditions
    5. Age under 18 years
  3. Findings
    1. See Osteoarthritis XRay
    2. See Foot XRay in Osteoarthritis
    3. See Hand XRay in Osteoarthritis
    4. See Hip XRay in Osteoarthritis
    5. See Knee XRay in Osteoarthritis
    6. See Spine XRay in Osteoarthritis
  • Management
  • Non-Pharmacologic Treatment
  1. See Knee Osteoarthritis for Muscle Strengthening
  2. Reduce Obesity
    1. Weight loss of 5% from baseline or 6 kg (13 pounds) decreases pain and Disability
  3. Physical Therapy
  4. Physiotherapy (Heat, Cold, Contrast Baths or Ultrasound)
    1. TENS not found to be effective
  5. Consider comorbidity
    1. See Depression in the Elderly
  6. Exercise Program (do not exacerbate symptoms)
    1. Stretching
    2. Mild aerobic, active, Isometric Exercise (eliptical trainer, Bicycle)
    3. Swimming
      1. Highly effective Exercise for strength, flexibility and aerobic fitness
    4. Tai chi
      1. Song (2003) J Rheumatol 30:2039-44 [PubMed]
  7. Joint protection
  8. Work and home modified in severe disease
    1. Limit weight bearing on affected joints
    2. Walk Aids (Canes and Walkers)
  9. Surgery
    1. Hip replacement or knee replacement in refractory cases
  • Management
  • Pharmacologic Management
  1. Acetaminophen (Tylenol) 1 gram orally twice daily (limit to 2-3 grams daily)
    1. Less effective than NSAIDs, but safer
  2. NSAIDs
    1. Cautious use in age over 65 years, prior GI Bleed, Aspirin, Plavix, Warfarin or Corticosteroid
      1. Consider with Proton Pump Inhibitor if 1-2 GI risks
      2. Avoid NSAIDs completely if 3 or more GI risks
    2. Avoid Feldene - higher risk of GI toxicity
    3. Naproxen may have less cardiovascular risks
    4. Observe for CNS effects (esp. Indomethacin)
    5. Consider topical diclofenac (see below)
    6. Switch classes when one NSAID is not effective
      1. Diclofenac (Voltaren) 50 mg two to three times daily
      2. NaproxenSodium (Naprosyn) 500 mg orally twice daily
      3. Ibuprofen (Advil) 600 mg three times daily
      4. Meloxicam (Mobic) 15 mg daily
      5. Nabumetone (Relafen) 500 mg twice daily
      6. Sulindac (Clinoril) 200 mg twice daily
  3. COX2 Inhibitors
    1. Celecoxib (Celebrex) 200 mg daily
    2. No advantages to standard NSAIDs and still very expensive
  4. Topical agents
    1. Topical diclofenac
      1. May be as effective as oral NSAIDs if only a few joints involved
      2. Expensive and risk of skin reaction
    2. Topical Capsaicin cream
      1. Effective for refractory Joint Pain
      2. Poorly tolerated
    3. Avoid topical Salicylates such as Bengay (ineffective for Osteoarthritis)
  5. Intraarticular agents
    1. Intra-articular Corticosteroid injection
      1. Avoid more than 3-4 times per year
    2. Sodium hyaluronate (Synvisc) in Knee Osteoarthritis
  6. Other systemic Analgesics
    1. Tramadol (Ultram)
      1. Effective, but with risks (NNT 6, NNH 8)
      2. Cepeda (2007) J Rheumatol 34(3): 543-55 [PubMed]
    2. Duloxetine (Cymbalta)
      1. Effective, but with moderate Nausea risk (NNT 7, NNH 6)
      2. Citrome (2012) Postgrad Med 124(1): 83-93 [PubMed]
    3. Opioids
      1. Generally not recommended due to significant risks
  • Management
  • Alternative Medications
  1. Possibly effective agents (insufficient evidence to recommend)
    1. Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) 25% applied topically
      1. Small, 3 week studies showed reduced pain
    2. Devil's Claw 2.4 grams daily
    3. Ginger Extract 510 mg daily
    4. Methlsulfonylmethane (MSM) 500 mg three times daily
    5. S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe) 200 mg three times daily
      1. Methyl donor in proteoglycan synthesis
      2. More effective than Placebo for pain, stiffness
      3. Very expensive and unstable shelf life (Butanedisulfonate salt is most stable)
    6. Glucosamine Sulfate
      1. Dosing 1500 mg once daily or 500 mg orally three times daily
      2. Effect may be delayed for 2 months
      3. Initial studies demonstrated benefit
        1. Towheed (2005) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2):CD002946 [PubMed]
        2. Richy (2003) Arch Intern Med 163(13):1514-22 [PubMed]
      4. Later studies show no significant benefit
        1. Roman-blas (2017) Arthritis Rheumatol 69(1): 77-85 [PubMed]
        2. Wilkins (2010) JAMA 304(1):45-52 [PubMed]
  2. Unknown benefit (anecdotal, inconclusive data or only small studies support)
    1. Avocado-soybean unsaponifiables 300 mg daily
    2. Boron supplementation
      1. Effects calcium metabolism in bones, joints
      2. Higher Arthritis rates with low boron intake
    3. Cetyl Myristoleate (anti-inflammatory effects)
    4. Acupuncture
    5. FLUIDjoint
      1. Concentrated milk proteins from New Zealand
      2. Promoted as containing antibodies for immunity
      3. Not recommended due to $50/month and unproven
  3. Agents to avoid
    1. Agents that are ineffective for Osteoarthritis (but may have other indications)
      1. Vitamin D Supplementation
      2. Antioxidant supplements
    2. Ineffective agents (avoid these based on high quality studies)
      1. Chondroitin sulfate 400 mg PO tid
      2. Tipi
      3. Reumalex
      4. Ionized wrist bracelets
      5. Osteoarthritis Shoes
    3. Preparations with serious adverse effects and either ineffective or unproven efficacy
      1. Limbrel (Flavocoxid)
        1. Risk of Acute Hepatitis and hypersensitivity pneumonitis
  4. References
    1. Morelli (2003) Am Fam Physician 67(2):339-44 [PubMed]
    2. Gregory (2008) Am Fam Physician 77(2): 177-84 [PubMed]
  • Prevention
  1. Maintain appropriate body weight
  2. Continued moderate joint activity is critical
    1. Normal joint use directs cartilage remodeling
    2. Decreased joint use risks abnormal cartilage repair
  1. Information from your Family Doctor: Staying Active
    1. http://www.familydoctor.org/healthfacts/115/