Bone

Osteoporosis Evaluation

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Osteoporosis Evaluation, Osteoporosis Screening, Osteoporosis Risk Factors, Osteoporosis Risk Assessment

  • Indications
  • Osteoporosis Screening
  1. All women over age 65 years
  2. Consider in all men over age 70 years
  3. Postmenopausal women 60 to 65 years with 1 risk below
    1. Fracture after age 45 years
    2. Hip Fracture in a parent
    3. Tobacco abuse
    4. Body Mass Index <22
    5. Extended gluococorticoid use (>3 months)
  4. Indications in Men over age 50 and Postmenopausal Women at any age
    1. Nontraumatic Fracture (esp. hip, Vertebrae, wrist)
    2. Incidental finding of Osteopenia on plain XRay
    3. Glucocorticoid use (e.g. Prednisone 5 mg per day for >3 months)
    4. Hypogonadism
    5. Hyperparathyroidism
    6. Multiple Osteoporosis Risk Factors (see below)
    7. See Osteoporosis Secondary Causes
  5. Risk Calculators
    1. See Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool
    2. See Osteoporosis SCORE Estimation
    3. Male Osteoporosis Risk Estimation Score
    4. FRAX Calculator
      1. http://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX/
  • Risk Factors
  • WHO Model for Fracture Risk (10 year risk)
  1. Age over 65 in women and over 70 in men
  2. Female gender
  3. Personal history of Fracture
  4. Parental history of Hip Fracture
  5. Femoral neck Bone Mineral Density (based on DEXA Scan)
  6. Glucocorticoid use (e.g. Prednisone >5 mg/day for >3 months)
  7. Current Tobacco abuse
  8. Heavy Alcohol use (3 or more drinks per day)
  9. Body Mass Index <22 kg/m2
  10. Resources
    1. http://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX/
  1. See Osteoporosis Secondary Causes
  2. Natural Progression
    1. Increasing age (over age 65 in women or over age 70 in men)
    2. Female gender
  3. Constitutional
    1. White (fair-skinned) or Asian origin
      1. Black and Hispanic patients have lower rates
    2. Low body weight or small stature
      1. Weight below 58 kilograms in adults
      2. Body Mass Index (BMI) <22
  4. Family History
    1. Parental history of Hip Fracture
    2. Osteoporosis
    3. Kyphosis
    4. Pathologic Fracture
  5. Lack of Bone loading or Exercise
    1. Sedentary
    2. Physical Disability interfering with weight-bearing
  6. Early Hypogonadism
    1. Premature Ovarian Failure (e.g. Female Athlete Triad)
    2. Orchiectomy for Prostate Cancer in men
  7. Lifestyle
    1. Low calcium intake or absorption
    2. Low Vitamin D intake (or inadequate sunlight exposure)
    3. Smoking (female RR 2.0, male RR 5.0)
    4. Excessive Alcohol (>4 drinks per day in men, >2drinks per day in women)
    5. High Caffeine intake (>2.5 cups of coffee per day)
  8. No longer considered a risk factor
    1. High phosphate (soda) does not cause Osteoporosis
      1. Heaney (2001) Am J Clin Nutr 74(3):343-7 [PubMed]
  9. Other factors
    1. Diabetes Mellitus
    2. Nulliparity
  • Diagnosis
  1. Keep High level of suspicion in both men and women
  2. Inquire at routine clinic visits
    1. Menopause
    2. Calcium intake
    3. Activity Level
    4. Tobacco Use
  3. Look for spine deformity, pain, and immobility
  4. Loss of total height measurement
    1. Women: >4 cm height loss since age 25 years
    2. Men: >6 cm height loss since age 25 years
    3. Some use 1.5 inch height loss for criteria
    4. Evaluation
      1. Prompts thoracic and Lumbar Spine XRay
      2. Evaluate for Vertebral Compression Fracture
  • Imaging
  1. XRays taken for other reasons
    1. XRays show changes after 40-50% skeletal mass loss
  2. DEXA Scan (single most important BMD testing)
    1. Can be followed as often as every 2 years
    2. See DEXA Scan for indications
  3. Qualitative Ultrasound of Calcaneus
    1. Less precise than DEXA Scan
    2. Less expensive than DEXA Scan and portable
    3. Measurement based on two factors
      1. Broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA)
      2. Speed of Sound (SOS)
  1. Complete Blood Count
    1. Multiple Myeloma
  2. Alkaline Phosphatase increased
    1. Paget's Disease
  3. Hepatic Aminotransferase levels (AST, ALT) increased
    1. Hepatic disease
  4. Serum Albumin decreased
    1. Malnutrition
  5. Serum Creatinine increased
    1. Renal disease
  6. Ionized Serum Calcium
    1. Increased Calcium
      1. Hyperparathyroidism
      2. Cancer
    2. Decreased Calcium
      1. Vitamin D Deficiency
      2. Malabsorption
  7. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) decreased
    1. Hyperthyroidism
  8. Hypogonadism
    1. Men: Total Serum Testosterone
      1. Testicular Failure
    2. Women: Estradiol
      1. Consider in pre- or peri-menopausal women
      2. Unnecessary in post-menopausal women
  • Labs
  • High risk for secondary cause
  1. Hypercalciuria
    1. 24 hour Urine Calcium excretion >250 mg
  2. Vitamin D Deficiency
    1. Serum 1,25-Hydroxy Vitamin D decreased
  3. Hyperparathyroidism
    1. Intact Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) increased
  4. Cushing's Disease
    1. 24 hour Urine Cortisol
  5. Multiple Myeloma evaluation
    1. Serum Protein Electrophoresis (SPEP)
  6. Hemochromatosis
    1. Serum Iron increased
    2. Ferritin level increased
  7. Celiac Sprue
    1. Tissue transglutaminase and Endomysial antibodies