Nutrition

Glycemic Index

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Glycemic Index, Glycemic Food

  • Physiology
  • Glycemic Index (GI)
  1. Rate of food digestion relative to Glucose
    1. Compared to Glucose or white bread as the control
  2. High Glycemic Food adverse effects
    1. Hyperglycemia may persist for 2 hours after meal
      1. Stimulates higher Insulin release
    2. Hypoglycemia results within 2 to 4 hours after meal
      1. Stimulates appetite
      2. Raises free Fatty Acid levels
  3. Glycemic load (GL)
    1. Corrects Glycemic Index for serving size
    2. Examples
      1. Scone GI is high at 92, but GL is low at 8
      2. Arborio rice GI is only 69, but GL is high at 36
  • Indications
  • Focus on lower Glycemic Index foods
  • High Glycemic Foods (index >60)
  • Rapid energy source
  1. Beverage
    1. Carbonated soft drinks (non-diet)
    2. Maltodextrin, sugar solution (7.5%)
    3. Maltodextrin solution (20%)
    4. Sucrose solution (6%)
  2. Breads and grains
    1. Bagels
    2. Bran muffins
    3. White bread
    4. Whole wheat bread
    5. Corn flakes
    6. White short-grained rice or sweet rice (sticky rice)
    7. Doughnut
  3. Fruits
    1. Over-ripe bananas
    2. Raisins
    3. Watermelon
  4. Vegetables
    1. Carrots
    2. Baked potato
  • Moderate Glycemic Foods (index 40-60)
  1. Beverage
    1. Unsweetened apple juice
    2. Orange juice
  2. Breads and grains
    1. Whole grain rye bread
    2. Oatmeal
    3. Pasta (e.g. spaghetti)
    4. Rice (lowest GI in long grain, brown, and Basmati)
    5. Muesli
  3. Fruits
    1. Grapes
    2. Oranges
    3. Under-ripe Bananas
    4. Dates
  4. Vegetables
    1. Beets
    2. Yellow corn
    3. Peas
    4. Yams
  5. Legumes
    1. Baked beans
    2. Lentil soup
  • Low Glycemic Foods (index <40)
  • Constant energy source
  1. Fruits
    1. Apples
    2. Cherries
    3. Figs
    4. Ripe banana
  2. Grains
    1. Pearled barley and hulless barley
  3. Vegetables
    1. Broccoli
  4. Legumes
    1. Butter beans
    2. Garbanzo beans (chickpeas)
    3. Green beans
    4. Lentils
  5. Dairy products
    1. Milk
    2. Soy milk
    3. Yogurt
  6. Nuts
    1. Peanuts