Minerals

Zinc

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Zinc

  • See Also
  • Physiology
  1. Absorbed in Small Intestine
  2. Functions
    1. Cofactor for polymerases and proteases (functions in Wound Repair, cell regeneration)
    2. Cofactor for thymulin (T-Cell maturation related hormone)
    3. Antioxidant
      1. Reduces cytokine expression (associated with organ failure and Sepsis)
  • Adverse Effects
  1. Gastrointestinal effects
    1. Metallic Taste
    2. Nausea or Vomiting
    3. Abdominal cramping
    4. Diarrhea
  2. Genitourinary effects
    1. Urinary Tract Infection
    2. Nephrolithiasis
  3. Miscellaneous effects
    1. Decreased HDL Cholesterol
  • Contraindications
  1. Pregnancy and Lactation in excess of RDA (unless significant deficiency)
  • Preparations
  1. Zinc Acetate: 25 mg (7.5 mg elemental zinc), 50 mg (15 mg elemental zinc)
  2. Zinc Gluconate: 50 mg (7 mg elemental zinc), 100 mg (14 mg elemental zinc)
  3. Zinc Sulfate: 110 mg (25 mg elemental zinc), 220 mg (50 mg elemental zinc)
  4. Zinc Oxide: 100 mg (80 mg elemental zinc)
  • Dosing
  • Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA)
  1. Age 0-6 months: 2 mg elemental zinc
  2. Age 7-36 months: 3 mg elemental zinc
  3. Age 4-8: 5 mg elemental zinc
  4. Age 9-13: 8 mg elemental zinc
  5. Age 14 and older: 11 mg (men) or 8 mg (women) elemental zinc
  6. Pregnancy and Lactation: 11-12 mg elemental zinc
  • Efficacy
  • Possible Benefit
  1. Pediatric Diarrhea
    1. Zinc 5-20 mg orally daily
    2. Lukacik (2008) Pediatrics 121(2): 326-36 [PubMed]
  2. Macular Degeneration (protection from oxidative stress)
    1. Grahn (2001) J Am Coll Nutr 20:106-18 [PubMed]
  3. Pediatric Pneumonia
    1. Zinc supplementation associated with decreased mortality, shorter hospitalizations and fewer treatment failures
    2. Greatest benefit appears to be in developing countries where Zinc Deficiency occurs frequently (30% of world population)
    3. Basnet (2012) Pediatrics 129(4): 701-8 [PubMed]
    4. Srinivasan (2012) BMC Med 10: 14 [PubMed]
  4. Pregnancy
    1. Zinc (25 mg) in Prenatal Vitamins
    2. Effects
      1. Increased birth weight and Head Circumference
      2. Resulted in birth at later Gestational age
      3. Resulted in shorter hospital stay
      4. Greatest benefit in thin women
    3. Goldenberg (1995) JAMA 274:463-8 [PubMed]
  • Drug Interactions
  1. Absorption decreased by zinc
    1. Penicillamine
    2. Tetracyclines
    3. Quinolones
  2. Interfere with zinc absorption (avoid within 2 hours of zinc dose)
    1. Iron supplements
    2. Grains or legumes (phytates)