Neuro

Learning Disorder

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Learning Disorder

  • Definition
  1. Discrepancy between IQ and achievement
    1. No obvious underlying neurologic Impairment
  2. Difficult to diagnose before second grade
  • Epidemiology
  1. Affects 2-12% of school population
    1. Special education received by 10-12%
  2. Reading disorders are most common (8%)
  3. Boys affected 2-4 times more often than Girls
  • Risk factors
  1. Prematurity
  2. Perinatal infections
  3. Prenatal exposure to drugs or Alcohol
  4. Postnatal lead exposure
  • Symptoms
  1. Delay in acquiring academic skills
  2. Dropping grades
  3. Excess time to complete work or learn new material
    1. Homework takes too long to complete
    2. Excess parental involvement
  4. Inconsistent performance
    1. Does better one-to-one
    2. Does better on homework than tests
  5. Behavior problems
    1. Disruptive behavior
    2. Homework refusal
    3. Class clown
    4. Hates school
    5. Frequent school absences
    6. Hides school work, lies about assignments
  • Signs
  1. Subtle language difficulties
    1. Poor processing
    2. Poor phonological awareness
  2. Secondary inattention (up to 40%)
    1. Retention of information is poor
  3. Low self-esteem
  4. Depression
  5. Aggressive behaviors
  • Differential Diagnosis
  1. Genetic Disorders
    1. Deletion at 22q11.2
    2. Klinefelter Syndrome
    3. Down Syndrome
    4. Fragile X
    5. Prader-Willi
    6. Angelman's Syndrome
    7. Rett Syndrome
  2. Acquired Disorder
    1. History of prematurity
    2. Congenital Hydrocephalus
    3. Traumatic Brain Injury
    4. Prior cerebral infection (e.g. Encephalitis)
    5. Lead Poisoning or Mercury Poisoning
  3. Mental Retardation
  4. Attentional Disorders (e.g. Attention Deficit Disorder)
  5. Language or Developmental Disorder
  6. Emotional disorder
    1. Anxiety
    2. Depression
    3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
    4. Psychosis
  7. Visual Impairment or Hearing Impairment
  8. Seizure Disorder
  9. Substance Abuse