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Intrauterine Growth Retardation

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Intrauterine Growth Retardation, Small for Gestational Age, IUGR

  • Definitions
  1. Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR)
    1. Estimated fetal weight < 10% per Gestational age
    2. Some suggest cutoff of 5% to reduce false positives
  2. Small for Gestational Age (SGA)
    1. Normal small infants without adverse risks
  • Evaluation
  1. Indicators of IUGR
    1. Poor Maternal Weight gain
      1. Most sensitive indicator for IUGR
    2. Fundal Height less than expected for Gestational age
  2. Consider environmental and comorbid factors
    1. Tobacco abuse (most significant individual risk)
    2. Poor Nutrition
    3. Illicit Drug Use
    4. Alcohol Abuse
    5. Minimal to no Prenatal Care
    6. Traumatic stress
  3. Fetal Assessment
    1. Follow Fetal Movement Counts (kick) counts
    2. Follow Non-Stress Test
    3. Serial Obstetric Ultrasounds for growth
    4. Biophysical Profile
  • Diagnosis
  1. Detection rate in-utero: 70%
  2. Indications for Obstetric Ultrasound
    1. Low risk fetus smaller than expected size
    2. High risk monitoring
  3. Ultrasound interpretation
    1. Head Circumference to Abdominal Circumference ratio
      1. Most useful in assessing Asymmetric IUGR
  • Management
  1. Address risk factors
    1. Tobacco Cessation
    2. Eliminate other negative habits
    3. Ensure adequate maternal weight gain
    4. Maximize Prenatal Care
    5. Reduce environmental stressors
  2. Perinatology Consultation Indications
    1. Poor Nonstress Test
    2. Decreasing Biparietal diameter
    3. Oligohydramnios
    4. Abdominal circumference 4 weeks less than BPD
  3. Early Delivery Indications
    1. Doppler diastolic flow 0 mmHg in umbilical artery
  • Complications
  • Peripartum Risks of IUGR
  1. Meconium Aspiration
  2. Intrauterine Asphyxia
  3. Polycythemia
  4. Hypoglycemia
  • Causes
  • Intrauterine Growth Retardation (IUGR)
  1. Symmetric IUGR (Head and body growth retarded)
  2. Asymmetric IUGR (head growth spared)
  • References
  1. Gabbe (1996) Obstetrics, Churchill, p. 863-886
  2. Ahluwalia (2001) Obstet Gynecol 97:649-56 [PubMed]