Autonomic

Horner's Syndrome

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Horner's Syndrome

  • Pathophysiology
  1. Paralysis of superior cervical Sympathetic Nerve
    1. Destructive lesion to superior cervical Ganglion
    2. Destruction in posterior retroparotid space
    3. Mediastinal tumor
  2. Associated lesions
    1. Cranial Nerve 9
    2. Cranial Nerve 10
    3. Cranial Nerve 11
    4. Cranial Nerve 12
  3. Images
    1. EyePupillaryReaction.png
  • Causes
  1. Brainstem Stroke
  2. Posterior retroparotid space mass
    1. Parotid Gland tumor
    2. Carotid body tumor
    3. Metastatic tumor
    4. Lymphoma
    5. Tuberculous Adenitis
  3. Mediastinal Mass
  • Signs
  1. Mnemonic: Miosis, Ptosis, Anhydrosis
  2. All findings are unilateral
  3. Miosis
  4. Palpebral Ptosis (Incomplete)
    1. Contrast with complete Ptosis in levator paralysis
    2. Illusion of eyeball recession (No true enophthalmos)
  5. Absence of sweating (Anhydrosis) on face and neck