Anatomy

Hypothalamus

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Hypothalamus, Hypothalamus Gland, Anterior Hypothalamus, Medial Hypothalamus, Posterior Hypothalamus, Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus

  • Physiology
  1. Master control of the Autonomic System (analogous to a thermostat)
  2. Coordinates complex, related reflexive actions
    1. Fight or flight response (Sympathetic Nervous System)
    2. Increased appetite (Parasympathetic Nervous System)
    3. Body Temperature Regulation
  • Anatomy
  1. Small organ in the diencephalon
  2. Anterior Hypothalamus
    1. Supraoptic nucleus
      1. Neurons project into the posterior pituitary where they release vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH)
    2. Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus
      1. Neurons project into the posterior pituitary where they release Oxytocin or vasopressin (ADH)
  3. Posterior Hypothalamus
    1. Produces and secretes releasing factors for anterior pituitary hormones (ACTH, TSH, GH, LH, FSH)
  • References
  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Neuroanatomy, Medmaster, p. 54-60
  2. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 140-1