Basal Ganglia


Basal Ganglia, Dorsal Striatum, Caudate Nucleus, Putamen, Globus Pallidus, Substantia Nigra, Nucleus Accumbens, Subthalamic Nucleus

  • Anatomy
  • Components
  1. Dorsal Striatum (Caudate Nucleus, Putamen)
    1. Medial Dorsal Striatum (Caudate Nucleus)
    2. Internal Capsule (courses between the Caudate Nucleus and Putamen)
    3. Lateral Dorsal Striatum (Putamen)
  2. Globus Pallidus
  3. Substantia Nigra (Midbrain)
    1. Divided into the pars compacta and pars reticulata
      1. Melanin containing cells in pars compacta produce Dopamine which is transmitted to the Dorsal Striatum
      2. Parkinsonism results when Dopamine production is deficient
    2. Functions
      1. Movement including eye movement (see Pars compacta as above
      2. Reward-seeking and addiction
  4. Nucleus Accumbens
  5. Subthalamic Nucleus
  • Anatomy
  • Images
  1. neuroBrainXsGrayBB716.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  2. neuroStriatumGrayBB741.gif Lewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
  • Pathophysiology
  1. Parkinsonism
    1. Basal Ganglia degeneration
    2. Substantia Nigra degeneration
  2. Other Movement Disorders
    1. See Movement Disorder
    2. Chorea (e.g. Huntington's Chorea, Sydenham's Chorea)
    3. Athetosis
    4. Hemiballismus
  • References
  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Neuroanatomy, Medmaster, p. 61-4
  2. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 104