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Long-acting Beta Agonist

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Long-acting Beta Agonist, Long-Acting Beta-2 Agonist, Long-Acting Inhaled Bronchodilator, Salmeterol, Serevent, Formoterol, Foradil, Indacaterol, Arcapta, Advair, Symbicort, Breo Ellipta, Arformoterol, Brovana, Trelegy Ellipta

  • See Also
  • Precautions
  1. Adverse outcomes in Asthma with Long-acting Beta Agonist (LABA)
    1. LABA use in Asthma was associated with increased Asthma deaths, increased intubations and hospitalizations
      1. McMahon (2011) Pediatrics 128(5): e1147-54 [PubMed]
    2. However FDA review of more recent studies found similar adverse outcomes with Inhaled Corticosteroids
      1. FDA removed LABA black box warning (see FDA communication link below)
  2. Risk of increased mortality and of more severe and life threatening Asthma Exacerbations
    1. Postulated to mask a patients awareness of severe Asthma Exacerbation
    2. FDA Black Box Warnings placed in 2003, but removed in 2017 (based on newer data as above)
      1. https://www.fda.gov/Drugs/DrugSafety/ucm589587.htm
  3. Not a substitute for Inhaled Corticosteroids
    1. Steroids are key management of persistent Asthma
    2. Long-acting Beta Agonists are in addition to Inhaled Corticosteroids
    3. Lazarus (2001) JAMA 285:2583-93 [PubMed]
  4. Do NOT exceed dosing schedule (e.g. Serevent bid)
    1. Use a short acting Beta agonist for rescue use
  5. Tolerance over time to Protective effect
    1. Effect diminishes over one month of use
    2. Reference
      1. Simons (1997) Pediatrics 99:655-9 [PubMed]
  • Preparations
  • Long-acting Beta Agonists
  1. Salmeterol (Serevent) Dry Powder Diskus (50 ug/inhale)
    1. One inhalation every 12 hours
  2. Serevent Inhalation aerosol MDI (21 ug/puff)
    1. Adults: 2 puffs every 12 hours
    2. Child: 1-2 puffs every 12 hours
  3. Formoterol (Foradil)
    1. One inhalation every 12 hours
  4. Indacaterol (Arcapta Neohaler)
    1. Once daily dosing
    2. FDA approved for COPD (not proven to prevent COPD exacerbations)
    3. Same cardiovascular risks as other long acting beta agonists
    4. Reference
      1. (2012) presc lett 19(1): 2
  5. Arformoterol (Brovana)
    1. Dose: 15 mcg twice daily
  • Preparations
  • Combination of Long-acting Beta Agonists with Corticosteroids
  1. Advair Diskus (Fluticasone/Salmeterol: 100/50, 250/50, 500/50)
    1. Dose: One puff twice daily
  2. AirDuo (Fluticasone/Salmeterol: 55/14, 113/14, 232/14)
    1. Dose: One puff twice daily
    2. Generic available in 2017 for $90/month (compare with $475/month for Advair)
    3. (2017) Presc Lett 24(7)
  3. Symbicort (Budesonide/Formoterol: 80/4.5, 160/4.5)
    1. Dose: One puff twice daily
  4. Breo Ellipta (Fluticasone/Vilanterol: 100/25)
    1. Only indicated for COPD (not Asthma)
    2. Dose: One puff once daily
  5. Trelegy Ellipta (Umeclidinium AND Fluticasone/Vilanterol)
    1. Only indicated for severe COPD when an Inhaled Steroid and a LAMA and LABA are indicated)