STD

Chancroid

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Chancroid, Soft Chancre, Hemophilus ducreyi, Inguinal Bubo

  • Epidemiology
  1. Chancroid is very common in third world (e.g. Africa)
    1. Responsible for 50-70% of Genital Ulcers in third world
    2. Replaces Genital Herpes (rare in third world) as the most common Genital Ulcer cause in third world
  2. Chancroid is rare in United States (except possibly urban centers)
    1. Outbreak in L.A. 1987
    2. Only 28 cases were reported to the State Health Departments in 2009
  3. Reportable disease
  4. Coinfection with HSV and Syphilis is common (see Associated Conditions below)
  • Pathophysiology
  1. Venereal infection with Haemophilus ducreyi
  2. Incubation: under 1 week
  • Symptoms
  1. Malaise
  2. Headache
  3. Anorexia
  4. Extremely painful Genital Ulcers
  • Signs
  1. Fever
  2. Small Red Papules begin on genitalia or adjacent skin
    1. Perineum (involved in women and homosexual men)
    2. Men
      1. Prepuce or frenulum
    3. Women
      1. Vulva or Cervix
    4. Extragenital lesions
      1. Rarely involve inner thighs and fingers
  3. Lesions suppurate into soft painful Genital Ulcers
    1. Deep, Undermined edges
    2. Irregular, serpiginous borders
    3. Purulent, friable base
    4. Multiple lesions in two thirds of patients
  4. Regional tender unilateral inguinal Lymphadenitis
    1. Occurs in 30-50% of patients
  5. Inguinal Buboes
    1. Develops from swollen lymph nodes
    2. Fluctuant lesions may rupture
  • Labs
  1. Sexually Transmitted Disease screening (see associated conditions below regarding coinfections)
  2. Haemophilus ducreyi bacilli in smear
    1. Gram Negative slender rods or coccobacilli
    2. May appear as "school of fish" pattern under microscopy
  3. Haemophilus ducreyi culture positive
    1. Requires special culture media
    2. Test Sensitivity: 80%
  4. Haemophilus ducreyi PCR
    1. Not available in the United States
  • Diagnosis
  1. See labs above
  2. Presumptive diagnosis is reasonable approach in United States where testing may not be definitive
    1. Painful Genital Ulcers with or without Regional Lymphadenopathy and
    2. No evidence of Syphilis at least 7 days after ulcer onset and
    3. Negative HSV Testing
  • Associated Conditions
  • Common - over 10% (especially when Chancroid acquired outside the United States)
  1. Herpes Simplex Virus Coinfection
  2. Syphilis Coninfection
  • Management
  1. General
    1. Needle aspiration or Incision and Drainage of fluctuant buboes
  2. Antibiotic options
    1. Azithromycin 1 gram orally for 1 dose
    2. Ceftriaxone 250 mg IM for 1 dose
    3. Ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily for 3 days
    4. Erythromycin 500 mg orally four times daily for 7 days
  • Complications
  1. Phimosis
  2. Bacterial superinfection