Allergic Transfusion Reaction


Allergic Transfusion Reaction, Anaphylaxis to Transfusion, Anaphylactic Transfusion Reaction

  • Pathophysiology
  1. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Antibody mediated reaction
  • Causes
  1. pRBC Transfusion (0.4% of transfusions)
  2. Platelet Transfusion (4.1% of transfusions)
  • Presentations
  1. Isolated skin involvement (mild)
  2. Anaphylaxis or Angioedema (severe)
    1. Incidence: 8 per 100,000 units Blood Product transfused
  • Signs
  1. Onset of reaction during transfusion or within 4 hours of transfusion
  • Management
  1. See Anaphylaxis
  2. Consider testing for IgA or Haptoglobin deficiency
    1. Associated with severe reactions including Anaphylaxis to Transfusion
  • Prevention
  1. Washing and volume reduction of Blood Product prior to transfusion
  2. Strategies that have not been found effective
    1. Pretreatment prior to transfusion (e.g. Antihistamines, Glucocorticoids)