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Henoch-Schonlein Purpura

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Henoch-Schonlein Purpura, Henoch Schonlein Purpura, Henoch-Schoenlein Purpura, Henoch Schoenlein Purpura, HSP, IgA Vasculitis, Immunoglobulin A Vasculitis

  • Epidemiology
  1. Incidence
    1. Children: 3 to 26 (mean 14) in 100,000
    2. Adults: 0.8 to 1.8 in 100,000
  2. Age
    1. Children aged 2-11 years represent 75-90% of cases
      1. HSP is the most common acute Vasculitis in children
      2. Peak Incidence at 5 year old
      3. Milder case occur in children under age 2 years
    2. Adults
      1. Affects middle aged adults (32 to 50 years old)
  3. Gender
    1. Occurs more often in boys (2:1)
  4. Timing
    1. Occurs most frequently in spring and winter in children (no seasonality in adults)
  • Pathophysiology
  1. Upper Respiratory Infection precedes HSP in 60-75% cases
  2. Acute immune complex-mediated, small vessel Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis
  3. Idiopathic inflammatory IgA Hypersensitivity
    1. Petechiae and Purpura
      1. IgA immune complexes deposit in small vessel walls of skin
    2. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
      1. IgA immune complexes deposit in small vessel walls of intestinal wall
    3. Crescentic Glomerulonephritis
      1. IgA immune complexes deposit in small vessel walls of renal mesangium
  • Associated Conditions (preceding HSP)
  • Course
  1. Onset over days to weeks (following Upper Respiratory Infection in most cases)
  2. Duration: 4-6 weeks
  • Symptoms
  • Classic Triad (beyond rash, triad is not uniformly present)
  1. Palpable Purpura rash on lower extremities (gravity dependent regions)
  2. Abdominal Pain or renal involvement (Nephritis)
  3. Arthritis or Arthralgias
  • Signs
  • Rash (100% of cases)
  1. Timing
    1. Rash precedes other signs and symptoms of HSP
    2. First appears as erythematous Papules
    3. Crops of palpable Purpura and Petechiae follow
    4. Purpura may enlarge to Ecchymoses, transition from purple to rust colored, and fade over 10 days
  2. Distribution
    1. Gravity and pressure dependent
    2. Typically appears on extensor surfaces of lower extremities, belt line and buttocks
    3. Can involve face and trunk
  3. Characteristics: Petechiae or palpable Purpura (primary lesion type)
    1. Non-pruritic, non-blanching hemorrhagic lesions (palpable Purpura and Petechiae)
      1. Initially they may blanch on pressure; later they do not
      2. Lesions may become hemorrhagic or necrotic
    2. Transition from purple to rust-colored and then fade over a 10 day period
  4. Characteristics: Other associated lesions
    1. Urticarial wheels
    2. Erythematous Macules
    3. Erythematous Papules
    4. Target lesions
      1. May appear similar to Erythema Multiforme
  1. Diffuse, Colicky Abdominal Pain (may mimic Acute Abdomen)
  2. Abdominal Pain onset typically follows rash
  3. Stools may show occult or gross blood
  4. Hematuria
  5. Vomiting or Hematemesis (rarely severe) in up to 30% of patients
  6. Intussusception occurs in 2-5% of HSP cases
  • Signs
  • Joint Involvement (70% of cases, especially in children)
  1. Arthritis precedes rash in 25% of cases
  2. Transient Arthritis with no permanent deformity or damage
  3. Non-Migratory polyarthritis
    1. Ankles and knees most commonly affected
    2. Elbows, hands and feet may also be affected
  • Signs
  • Renal Disease (25-50% of cases)
  1. General
    1. Most serious complication of HSP
  2. Risk Factors
    1. Age over 10 years old and adults
    2. Persistent Purpura
    3. Gastrointestinal Bleeding
    4. Severe Abdominal Pain
    5. Relapsing episodes
    6. Male gender
  3. Presentation
    1. Develops within 3 months of rash (typically within first month and rarely beyond 6 months)
    2. Hematuria most common presenting sign (also accompanied by red cell casts and Proteinuria)
    3. Persistent Proteinuria increases risk of progressive Glomerulonephritis
    4. Risk of ESRD in 1% of patients over subsequent months
  • Signs
  • Miscellaneous
  1. Most common associated findings in adults
    1. Hypertension
    2. Lower extremity edema
  • Complications (more common in adults)
  1. Most common complications
    1. Gastrointestinal Bleeding
    2. Glomerulonephritis
  2. Cardiopulmonary conditions
    1. Myocardial Infarction
    2. Pulmonary Hemorrhage
    3. Pleural Effusion
  3. Gastrointestinal conditions
    1. Intussusception (mural hematoma is lead point) in 2-5% of cases
    2. Gastrointestinal Bleeding
    3. Bowel infarction
  4. Neurologic conditions
    1. Headaches
    2. Behavior Changes
    3. Seizures
    4. Mononeuropathies
  5. Renal disorders: Crescentic glomeruloneprhitis
    1. Renal Failure
    2. Hematuria
    3. Proteinuria
  6. Male genitourinary conditions
    1. Orchitis
    2. Testicular Torsion
  • Diagnosis
  • EULAR/PReS Criteria
  1. Background
    1. Replaces ACR 1990 criteria
    2. Lab tests are not required to make diagnosis (i.e. Purpura AND Arthralgias or Abdominal Pain)
  2. Major criteria (required)
    1. Purpura or Petechiae affecting the lower extremities
  3. Minor criteria (requires 1 of the following)
    1. Acute Arthritis or Arthralgia involving any joint
    2. Diffuse Acute Abdominal Pain
    3. Biopsy showing Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis or proliferative Glomerulonephritis with IgA deposition
    4. Renal involvement presenting as Proteinuria or Hematuria
  4. Efficacy
    1. Child: 100% Test Sensitivity and 87% Test Specificity
    2. Adult: 99% Test Sensitivity and 86% Test Specificity
  5. References
    1. Ozen (2010) Ann Rheum Dis 69(5): 798-806 [PubMed]
  • Labs
  • Initial
  1. Complete Blood Count (CBC)
    1. Leukocytosis with Eosinophilia
    2. Platelets may be elevated
      1. Low Platelets suggest Thrombocytopenic Purpura
  2. Sedimentation rate (ESR) variably elevated
  3. Urinalysis: Nephritis evaluation (nephrology evaluation if positive)
    1. Most important lab in suspected HSP
    2. Hematuria or Proteinuria in up to 50% of patients
  4. Stool Guaiac
    1. Occult or gross blood may be present
  5. Renal Function tests (BUN, Creatinine)
    1. Obtain if positive urine for Hematuria or Proteinuria
    2. Elevation may suggest Hypersensitivity Vasculitis
  6. Coagulation Studies (PTT and INR)
    1. Normal in HSP
    2. Consider in differential diagnosis for Purpura
  • Labs
  • Other
  1. Consider ASO Titer
  2. Consider Blood Culture (in differential diagnosis for Purpura)
  3. Fecal Calprotectin
    1. Marker for gastrointestinal involvement
  • Labs
  • Histology
  1. Skin Biopsy (indicated in unclear diagnosis)
    1. Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis with IgA vascular deposits
  2. Renal Biopsy (indicated in progressive Glomerulonephritis)
    1. Glomerular crescents
    2. Indistinguishable from IgA Nephropathy
  • Imaging
  1. Not routinely indicated
  2. Abdominal Ultrasound
    1. Indicated in suspected Intussusception in children
  3. Abdominal CT Abdomen
    1. Indicated for concurrent gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of alternative diagnosis (esp. adults)
  4. Endoscopy
    1. May be indicated in gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
  5. Bronchoscopy
    1. Indicated in Pulmonary Hemorrhage
  • Management
  • General
  1. Supportive care (Primary strategy)
    1. Hydration
    2. Relative rest
    3. Elevate legs (may reduce Purpura)
  2. Rash
    1. No specific management
  3. Joint Pain
    1. Acetaminophen
    2. NSAIDs (with caution and avoid in renal involvement)
      1. Risk of renal disease
      2. Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding
  4. Nephritis (Hematuria or Proteinuria)
    1. Nephrology Consultation
    2. Renal biopsy
    3. Children with mild to moderate renal disease
      1. Systemic Corticosteroids are no longer recommended (see below)
    4. Adults and children with moderate to severe disease
      1. High dose Corticosteroids
      2. Immunosuppressants (e.g. Cyclosporine, Mycophenolate, Dapsone, Rituximab)
      3. High dose IV Ig
      4. Plasmapheresis
  1. Indications
    1. Children with severe extrarenal, refractory symptoms (e.g. Abdominal Pain, Joint Pain)
    2. Scrotal Swelling
    3. Children with renal involvement
      1. Previously recommended in mild-moderate cases
      2. As of 2013-2015, Corticosteroids (and cyclophosphamide) appear to have no benefit in non-severe disease
        1. Dudley (2013) Arch Dis Child 98(10): 756-63 [PubMed]
        2. Hahn (2015) Cochrane Database Syst Rev (8): CD005128 [PubMed]
  2. Dosing
    1. Prednisone 1-2 mg/kg orally daily for two weeks
  • Management
  • Hospitalization Indications
  1. Severe dehydration
  2. Intractable pain or Abdominal Pain requiring serial examination and observation
  3. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
  4. Inability to ambulate
  • Prognosis
  1. Excellent in general
    1. Resolves spontaneously in 94% of children
    2. Resolves spontaneously in 89% of adults
      1. However cases are more severe in adults with worse outcomes than with children
  2. Recurrence
    1. Relapse occurs in up to 30% of children, up to 50% of adults
    2. Relapse may be delayed as long as 10 years after prior episode
    3. Relapse is most common in adults with gastrointestinal symptoms
    4. Calvo-Rio (2016) Medicine 95(28):e4217 [PubMed]
  3. Renal Disease
    1. Up to 50% will have Hematuria or Proteinuria
    2. Longterm renal disease develops in 5% of cases overall
      1. Child: <1% develop End Stage Renal Disease
      2. Adult: Up to 11% develop End Stage Renal Disease
        1. Audemard-Verger (2017) Arthritis Rheumatol 69(9):1862-70 [PubMed]
  4. Predictors of serious nephropathy or ESRD
    1. Early onset of renal findings
      1. Abnormal Urinalysis on the day of HSP diagnosis (children)
      2. Renal involvement occurs within 6 weeks in 91% and 6 months in 97%
        1. Narchi (2005) Arch Dis Child 90(9):916-20 [PubMed]
      3. Low likelihood of chronic renal complications if no renal involvement by 6 months
      4. Nephritis at HSP diagnosis confers longterm Hypertension and urine abnormalities risks
      5. Nephrotic Syndrome at HSP diagnosis (lasting >3 months) confers longterm renal disease risk
    2. Bloody stools
    3. Rash persistence
    4. Renal Biopsy with glomerular crescents
      1. Progresses to ESRD in 100% of cases
  • Monitoring
  1. Renal involvement screening
    1. Blood Pressure initially and at each subsequent visit following the HSP diagnosis
    2. Urinalysis in all patients at time of HSP diagnosis and periodic screening over subsequent 6 months
      1. Obtain monthly Urinalysis for 6 months if initial Urinalysis with Hematuria or Proteinuria
    3. If any Urinalysis suggests nephritis (Hematuria and Proteinuria)
      1. Serum Creatinine
      2. Blood Urea Nitrogen
  2. Cancer screening in adults with HSP over age 60 years
    1. Lung Cancer
    2. Renal Cancer
    3. Prostate Cancer