Pharm

Zalcitabine

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Zalcitabine, ddC, Hivid

  • Mechanism
  • Pharmacokinetics
  1. Well absorbed (87% oral bioavailability)
  • Efficacy
  1. Combination treatment Zalcitabine and Zidovudine (AZT)
    1. Late HIV without prior Anti-Retroviral Therapy
    2. Large and sustained CD4 Count increase
    3. Improves survival in patients with late HIV disease
  • Dosing
  1. Zalcitabine 0.75 mg PO tid ($207/month)
  • Adverse Effects
  1. See nRTI for adverse effects attributed to the class
  2. Common symptoms during the first several weeks
    1. Effects
      1. Maculovesicular cutaneous eruptions
      2. Mucosal Ulcers
      3. Fevers
    2. Symptoms often resolve without stopping medication
    3. Consider Symptomatic therapy
      1. Tylenol
      2. Antihistamines
      3. NSAIDS
    4. Symptoms less frequent at a dose of 2.25 mg/day
  3. Painful Sensorimotor leg Peripheral Neuropathy (10-25%)
    1. Major dose limiting toxicity
    2. Discontinue drug at first signs of Neuropathy!
    3. Symptoms usually resolve over a few weeks
  4. Pancreatitis (<1%)