Contraception

Intrauterine Device

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Intrauterine Device, IUD, Paragard, Copper T-380A IUD, Progestasert, Mirena, Skyla, Liletta

  • See Also
  1. IUD Insertion
  • Contraindications
  • Absolute
  1. Undiagnosed Abnormal Uterine Bleeding
  2. Uterine abnormality that distorts endometrial cavity
  3. Current intrauterine infection
  4. Unresolved abnormal Pap Smear
  5. Current endometrial or Cervical Cancer
  6. Findings suggestive of trophoblastic disease
  7. Wilson's Disease or copper allergy (Copper-T IUD)
  8. Uterine or pelvic infection within last 3 months
    1. Sexually Transmitted Infection
    2. Chorioamnionitis
    3. Endometritis
  • Contraindications
  • Historical that are no longer contraindications (restrictions loosened by FDA in 2010)
  1. Nulliparity
    1. More difficult to place if no prior pregnancy
    2. Must be able to sound Uterus to 6 cm or greater
    3. Expulsion rates and longterm device tolerance and continuation rates are similar to women previously pregnant
      1. Paterson (2009) Contraception 79(6): 433-8 [PubMed]
      2. Veldhuis (2004) Eur J Gen Pract 10(3): 82-7 [PubMed]
  2. Adolescents
    1. USMEC recommends IUD for Contraception in this cohort due to high efficacy that outweighs potential risks
    2. Risk of PID or future Infertility does not appear to be increased
  3. Sexually Transmitted Disease history or multiple sexual partners
    1. PID may now be lower risk with modern IUDs
      1. Campbell (2007) Am J Obstet Gynecol 197(2): 193 [PubMed]
    2. Screen women for STIs per CDC guidelines
    3. Delay IUD Placement for 3 months following Sexually Transmitted Infection treatment
  4. Ectopic Pregnancy
    1. Ectopic risk is not increased with IUD use
    2. However, if breakthrough pregnancy occurs, it is much more likely to occur as an Ectopic Pregnancy
  • Risk Factors
  1. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  2. Tubal Infertility
    1. Cohort Study (n=4185)
      1. Primary (Nulliparous) Tubal Infertility Risk
        1. Dalkon Shield Relative Risk: 3.3
        2. Lippes Loop or Saf-T-Coil Relative Risk: 2.9
        3. Copper-T IUD Relative Risk: 1.6
        4. Having only one sexual partner: No increased risk
      2. Secondary (Multiparous) Tubal Infertility Risk
        1. Copper-T IUD Relative Risk: 1.5 (not significant)
        2. Non-Copper IUD Relative Risk: 2.8
    2. References
      1. Cramer (1985) N Engl J Med, 312(15): 941-7 [PubMed]
  • Adverse Effects
  1. First 3 months after IUD insertion
    1. Perception of vaginal infection
    2. Changes in menstrual flow (30%)
      1. Dysmenorrhea or prolonged flow
      2. Results in 10-15% discontinuation in first year
      3. Reduced with NSAIDs taken 2-3 days with flow onset
  2. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease risk
    1. Risk increases in first 20 days after insertion
    2. Risk is <1 per 1000 insertions
    3. Use of prophylactic antibiotics not warranted (not effective, do not alter course)
  3. Expulsion in first 2 months
    1. Increased expulsion rates if placed immediately after delivery, Cesarean Section or pregnancy loss
    2. Days 1-5: 5% expulsion rate
    3. Days 6-12: 3% expulsion rate
    4. Days >12: 2% expulsion rate
  4. Progestin IUD (Mirena, Skyla) related adverse effects
    1. Headache
    2. Hair Loss
    3. Major Depression
    4. Breast tenderness
    5. Vaginitis
    6. Pelvic Pain
  • Safety
  1. IUDs are compatible with Lactation
  • Types
  • Available in U.S.
  1. Copper T-380A IUD (Paragard): 10 year copper device
    1. First year failure rate: 0.7%
    2. Cumulative ten year failure rate: 2.1%
    3. Recent studies indicate efficacious 12 years
    4. Reduces Ectopic Pregnancy rate significantly
    5. Barium impregnated
  2. Mirena: 5 year Progesterone (Levonorgestrel) device
    1. First year failure rate: 0.2%
      1. Of pregnancies, 50% will be ectopic
      2. Better efficacy than Copper-T IUD
    2. Polyethylene-barium T-shape 52 mg Levonorgestrel
    3. Releases 20 mcg/day of Levonorgestrel
    4. Progesterone adverse effects may occur
      1. Headache
      2. Acne Vulgaris
    5. Conception occurs for 80% within 12 months of removal
    6. Mechanism (Primarily spermicidal)
      1. Thins endometrium and thickens Cervical Mucus
      2. Inhibits sperm movement and function
      3. May also suppress Ovulation
    7. Reduces Menstrual Bleeding
      1. Consider for Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding
      2. Irregular bleeding may occur in first 6 months
      3. Amenorrhea at one year of use if common (20%)
  3. Skyla: 3 year Progesterone (Levonorgestrel) device
    1. New in 2014 from Bayer (also makes Mirena)
    2. Releases 14 mcg/day of Levonorgestrel (lower dose than Mirena)
    3. Similar inserter as Mirena
    4. Marketed for nulliparous patients (but other IUDs are also considered safe in this cohort)
    5. First year failure rate: 0.9%
      1. Less effective than either Mirena or Copper-T IUD
    6. Conception occurs for 77% within 12 months of removal
  4. Liletta: Progesterone (Levonorgestrel) device
    1. Releases 19 mcg/day of Levonorgestrel (similar to Mirena)
    2. Released in 2015 and approved for 3 years of protection
      1. Studies are ongoing with goal of ultimately showing 7 years of protection
  • Preparations
  • Discontinued
  1. Progestasert: 1 year Progesterone device (discontinued in U.S. in 2001)
    1. First year failure rate: 2%
    2. Ethylene/vinyl acetate T-shape 38 mg Progesterone
    3. Higher rate of ectopic compared with Copper IUD
    4. Less bleeding complications
    5. Progesterone adverse effects may occur
  • Indications
  • Prophylactic Antibiotics on insertion
  1. Routine prophylaxis no longer indicated
    1. No difference in outcomes
  2. Prior indications for antibiotic prophylaxis
    1. History of Bacterial Vaginosis
    2. Difficult insertion
    3. SBE Prophylaxis (not indicated in IUD insertion)
  • Procedure
  1. See IUD Insertion
  • Protocol
  • Switching between contraceptives
  1. Switch to Mirena IUD from pill, patch, ring
    1. Use pill, patch, ring, or barrier protection for the first 7 days after Mirena insertion
    2. Switch may be made before the scheduled end of use of the prior contraceptive
  2. Switch to Mirena IUD from Copper-T IUD
    1. Use barrier protection for first 7 days
  3. Switch to Depo Provera from Copper-T IUD
    1. Give first injection 7 days prior to Copper-T-IUD removal (or use barrier contraceptive for 1 week)
  4. Switch to Nexplanon (Progestin implant) from Copper-T-IUD
    1. Nexplanon should be inserted 4 days prior to Copper-T IUD removal (or use barrier contraceptive for 4 days)
  5. Switch to contraceptive pill, patch or ring from the IUD
    1. Start the new contraceptive 7 days before IUD removal
  6. Switch to Copper IUD from other methods
    1. Insert Copper-T IUD no more than 5 days after stopping other contraceptive
    2. Insert Copper-T IUD no more than 16 weeks after last Depo Provera injection
  • Management
  • Complications
  1. Sexually Transmitted Infection without signs of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
    1. IUD may be left in place and STD treated
    2. Remove IUD for Pelvic Inflammatory Disease or other symptomatic Sexually Transmitted Infection
  2. Pregnancy with IUD in place
    1. Transvaginal Ultrasound to exclude Ectopic Pregnancy (critical)
    2. IUD Removal
      1. UltrasoundUterus to confirm IUD in place if strings can not be found
      2. Recommended to reduce pregnancy loss, Placental Abruption, preterm delivery, and low birth weight
      3. However, pregnancy loss occurs in at least 40% of women after IUD removal
      4. Saav (2007) Hum Reprod 22(10): 2647-52 [PubMed]