Conjunctiva

Allergic Conjunctivitis

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Allergic Conjunctivitis, Hay fever Conjunctivitis, Irritant Conjunctivitis

  • See Also
  • Causes
  1. Related to seasons or environmental change
    1. Recent exposure to pollen, grass
  2. Irritants
    1. Smog
    2. Chlorine
    3. Dust
    4. Cigarette smoke
  3. Iatrogenic: Topical Antibiotics
    1. Gentamicin and other Aminoglycoside eye preparations
    2. Sulfonamide eye preparations
    3. Neomycin eye preparations
  • Symptoms
  1. Typically bilateral involvement
  2. Eye itching
    1. Pathognomonic for Allergic Conjunctivitis
  3. Eye tearing with stringy discharge
  4. Eye Fullness sensation
  • Signs
  1. Marked Conjunctival Hyperemia
  2. Marked Chemosis
  3. Red hypertrophic papillae on lid Conjunctival lining
    1. Best seen with Fluorescein
    2. Appears as cobblestoning
  4. Conjunctival edema
    1. Eye may appear to sink into Conjunctiva
  • Management
  • Approach
  1. General Measures
    1. Discontinue offending agents or medications
    2. Avoid allergans
    3. Consider Allergic Rhinitis management (oral Antihistamines, Intranasal Corticosteroids)
  2. Mild Symptoms
    1. Cold compress to eyes
    2. Artificial tears
  3. Moderate Symptoms
    1. Ocular Antihistamines AND
    2. Ocular NSAIDs OR Ocular Mast Cell Stabilizers
  4. Severe Symptoms
    1. Continue agents used for mild and moderate symptoms as above AND
    2. Consider Topical Corticosteroid (e.g. loteprednol 0.2% or fluorometholone 0.1%)
      1. Exercise caution (exclude infection first)
  • Management
  • Preparations
  1. Ocular Mast Cell Stabilizers (preferred)
    1. Cromolyn Sodium (Crolom) 1 drop 4-6x/day
    2. Olopatadine 0.1% (Patanol) 1-2 drops each eye twice daily
    3. Lodoxamide 0.1% (Alomide) 1-2 drops each eye four times daily
    4. Ketotifen 0.025% (Alaway OTC, Zaditor) 1-2 drops each eye twice daily
      1. Less expensive and over-the-counter
  2. Ocular Antihistamines
    1. Naphazoline (Vasocon, Naphcon) 1 drop twice to four times daily prn
    2. Epinastine (Elestat) 0.05% 1 drop each eye twice daily
    3. Bepotastine (Bepreve) 1.5% 1 drop each eye twice daily
  3. Ocular NSAIDs
    1. Ketorolac 0.5% (Acular) 1 drop four times daily for 7 days
    2. Diclofenac 0.1% (Voltaren) 1 drop four times daily
  4. Oral Antihistamine
    1. Mild to moderate: Non-Sedating Antihistamine
    2. Severe: Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)
  5. Consider Intranasal Steroid
  6. Consider short course of oral Corticosteroids (3-5 days)
    1. Indicated for severe, refractory cases
  1. Information from your Family Doctor
    1. http://www.familydoctor.org/handouts/678.html
  • References
  1. Williams (2017) Crit Dec Emerg Med 31(2): 3-12
  2. Cronau (2010) Am Fam Physician 81(2): 137-44 [PubMed]