Anatomy

Neurologic Anatomy of the Eye

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Neurologic Anatomy of the Eye, Eye Neurologic Anatomy, Visual System Structure, Visual Pathway, Optic Chiasm, Optic Tract, Lateral Geniculate Body, Optic Radiation

  • Anatomy
  • Pathway
  1. Retina (each eye)
    1. Components
      1. Fovea (central, highest resolution region of Macula)
      2. Peripheral Macula
    2. Visual field deficits
      1. Scotomata
      2. Glaucoma (peripheral Vision Loss)
  2. Optic Nerve (each eye)
    1. Components
      1. Left Retinal fibers (view right visual field)
      2. Right Retinal fibers (view left visual field)
    2. Visual field deficits
      1. Complete loss of vision from affected eye
      2. Example: Left Optic Nerve lesion results in complete blindness of the left eye, but the right eye is unaffected
  3. Optic Chiasm (central, near pituitary)
    1. Components
      1. Left Retinal fibers (right visual field) join from each eye, forming Optic Tract to left Cerebral Hemisphere
      2. Right Retinal fibers (left visual field) join from each eye, forming Optic Tract to right Cerebral Hemisphere
    2. Visual field deficits
      1. Bilateral loss of lateral visual fields
      2. Example: The left eye cannot see the left visual field and the right eye cannot see the right visual field
  4. Optic Tract (each hemisphere)
    1. Components
      1. Left Optic Tract
      2. Right Optic Tract
    2. Visual field deficits
      1. Vision Loss in each eye of the contralateral visual field
      2. Example: Left Optic Tract lesion results in a right sided visual field cut for each eye
  5. Lateral Geniculate Body (each hemisphere)
  6. Optic Radiation (each hemisphere)
    1. Components
      1. Parietal Lobe Optic Radiation
        1. Transmits superior Retina signals to Occipital Lobe above the calcarine fissure
      2. Temporal Lobe Optic Radiation
        1. Transmits inferior Retina signals to Occipital Lobe below the calcarine fissure
    2. Visual field deficits
      1. Affected Optic Radiation results in a quarter segment Vision Loss
      2. Example: Left Parietal Optic Radiation defect results in a right upper visual field cut
  7. Occipital Lobe (each hemisphere)
    1. Components
      1. Foveal (central Retina) is represented in the posterior Occipital Lobe
      2. Peripheral Retina is represented in the more anterior Occipital Lobe
    2. Visual field deficits
      1. Affected Occipital Lobe results in a quarter segment Vision Loss central (posterior) or peripheral (anterior)
      2. Example: Left posterior occiput lesion above the calcarine fissure results in a right upper, central visual field cut
  • Anatomy
  • Images
  1. See Extraocular Movement
  2. See Retinal Anatomy
  3. Nerves
    1. eyeOpticNervesGrayBB763.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    2. eyeOpticNerveGrayBB773.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    3. eyeOpticNervesGrayBB774.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    4. eyeNervesSupOrbitalFissureGrayBB787.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    5. eyeNervesGrayBB776.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    6. eyeNervesGrayBB777.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    7. neuroOpticTractsGrayBB722.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    8. neuroEyeSypatheticGrayBB840.gifLewis (1918) Gray's Anatomy 20th ed (in public domain at Yahoo or BartleBy)
    9. eye_eom.png
    10. EyePupillaryReactionNeuroPath.png
    11. EyePupillaryReaction.png
  • References
  1. Goldberg (2014) Clinical Neuroanatomy, Medmaster, p. 40-54
  2. Netter (1997) Atlas Human Anatomy, ICON Learning, p. 114, 126