Thyroid

Multinodular Goiter

search

Multinodular Goiter, Toxic Multinodular Goiter, Non-Toxic Multinodular Goiter

  • Epidemiology
  1. Toxic Multinodular Goiter is second most common cause of Hyperthyroidism in U.S. (5% of cases)
  • Risk Factors
  1. Diets deficient in Iodine (esp. elderly)
  • Causes
  1. Simple Goiter develops into Multinodular Goiter
  • Types
  1. Non-Toxic Multinodular Goiter
  2. Toxic Multinodular Goiter (50%)
    1. Increase in clonogenic cells with TSH receptor mutation (somatic activating)
    2. Results in Thyrotoxicosis
  • Differential Diagnosis
  • Symptoms
  1. Dysphagia
  2. Choking sensation
  • Signs
  1. Markedly enlarged nodular Thyroid
  2. Stridor
  • Complications
  1. Toxic Multinodular Goiter (Thyrotoxicosis)
    1. Cardiovascular complications
      1. Atrial Fibrillation
      2. Tachycardia
      3. Congestive Heart Failure
    2. No Ophthalmopathy (Proptosis and stare)
    3. No Dermopathy
  2. Both Toxic and Non-Toxic Multinodular Goiter
    1. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome
      1. Results from thoracic outlet obstruction