Thyroid

Hyperthyroidism Management

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Hyperthyroidism Management, Grave Disease Management

  • Precautions
  1. Thyroiditis is managed symptomatically (see antiandrenergic medications below)
    1. Anticipate resolution spontaneously by 6 months
    2. Drug-Induced Thyroiditis should also prompt removal of offending agent
    3. Antithyroid medications and Thyroid ablation are NOT indicated in Thyroiditis
  2. Antithyroid medications and Thyroid ablation are primarily for Grave Disease and toxic Goiters
  • Medications
  • Antiadrenergic Medications
  1. Indications
    1. Thyroiditis
    2. Concurrent initially with ablation, PTU/MTZ, surgery
    3. Symptomatic control
      1. Controls Tremor, Palpitations, nervousness
  2. Beta Blockers (non-selective preferred)
    1. Propranolol
      1. Also blocks peripheral T4 to T3 conversion (by inhibiting 5'-monodeiodinase)
      2. Start: 10-20 mg PO q6 hours
      3. Advance to 20 to 80 mg PO q6 hours
  3. Diltiazem (Cardizem)
    1. Alternative if Beta Blockers not tolerated
  • Medications
  • Antithyroid Medications
  1. Indications
    1. Hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents
    2. Pregnancy
      1. Propylthiouracil in first trimester, Methimazole in second trimester
    3. Severe Grave's Disease
  2. Antithyroid Medications (Thionamides)
    1. Methimazole 15-30 mg per day (up to 120 mg)
    2. Propylthiouracil (PTU) 100-200 mg orally every 8 hours
      1. Indicated in pregnancy first trimester
  3. Monitoring
    1. See Antithyroid Medications
  • Management
  • Ablation
  1. Radioactive Iodine (I-131)
    1. Management of choice for Grave's Disease of all ages (not in pregnancy or moderate Graves Orbitopathy)
    2. Recurrent Hyperthyroidism after Antithyroid Drugs
    3. Toxic Multinodular Goiter
    4. Toxic Nodule in patient over age 40 years old
  2. Subtotal Thyroidectomy
    1. Pregnancy
    2. Children intollerant to antithyroid medications
    3. Toxic Nodule under age 40 years old
    4. Large ThyroidGoiter causing local compression
  3. Monitoring after ablation
    1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) may not be initially accurate
    2. Follow Free T4, Free T3 to base Thyroid Replacement