Obesity

Obesity

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Obesity, Overweight

  • Epidemiology
  1. Prevalence: 33% US adults age 20 to 74 are obese
  2. Trends
    1. Obesity Prevalence has increased 8% since 1980
    2. Obesity Prevalence has increased 54% ages 6-11 years
  3. Patients gain 1 pound per year after age 25
  • Pathophysiology
  • Fat expands in 2 ways
  1. Fat Cell Number
    1. Fat cell number does not decrease with weight loss
    2. Increases 5 fold until age 22 years
    3. Increase continues with nutritional excess
    4. Non-obese person has 25-30 billion fat cells
    5. Obese person has 260 billion cells
  2. Fat Cell Size
    1. Fat cell size reduces with weight loss
    2. Adults fill existing fat cells when they over eat
  • Diagnosis
  • Obesity
  1. Men: 20% over estimated Ideal Weight
  2. Women: 30% over estimated Ideal Weight
  • Worksheets
  1. Dietician in the Box
    1. PreventEdWeightLoss2Sjm.htm
  • Research
  • Obesity Gene (ob)
  1. Ob expression
    1. Feeding turns on rat adipocytes via Insulin
    2. Inhibit Neuropeptide Y synthesis at appetite center
    3. Neuropeptide Y
      1. Decreases thermogenesis
      2. Increases Insulin and appetite
  2. Ob gene function: Produces Leptin (protein)
    1. Leptin uppresses appetite in rats
    2. Leptin increases thermogenesis in rats
    3. Leptin decreases Insulin levels in rats
  3. References
    1. Saladin (1995) Nature 377:527-9 [PubMed]
    2. Stephens (1995) Nature 377:530-2 [PubMed]
    3. Pelleymounter (1995) Science, 269(5223):540-3 [PubMed]