Obesity

Dietary Supplements in Obesity

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Dietary Supplements in Obesity, Obesity Management with Dietary Supplements

  • General
  1. Most studies on these agents are too short duration
  2. Most studies have also been of low power
  3. No strong evidence that any supplements are effective
  • Preparations
  • Ineffective Agents (Avoid these)
  1. Chitosan
    1. Pittler (1999) Eur J Clin Nutr 53:379-81 [PubMed]
  2. Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA)
    1. Blankson (2000) J Nutr 130:2943-8 [PubMed]
  3. Chromium Picolinate
    1. Ineffective with risk of Rhabdomyolysis
    2. Vincent (2003) Sports Med 33:213-30 [PubMed]
  4. Human chorionic Growth Hormone (HCG)
    1. Pulled from U.S. market by FDA in 2012
    2. Ineffective for weight loss despite which use continues by some weight loss clinics and someOTC manufacturers
    3. Risk of Venous Thromboembolism, Major Depression, cardiovascular events
    4. FDA Consumer Update
      1. http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm281333.htm
  5. Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid)
    1. Trials have shown conflicting results, but no evidence of either meaningful or sustained weight loss
    2. Risk of Serotonin toxicity and Serotonin Syndrome
    3. (2014) Presc lett 21(10): 58
  6. Fiber (guar gum, Psyllium)
  7. Yerba mate
  8. Licorice
  9. Vitamin B5
  10. L-Carnitine
  11. Dandelion (Diuretic)
  12. Cascara (Laxative)
  13. St. John's Wort (no effect on weight loss)
  14. Laminaria (kelp)
  15. Spirulina (blue green algae)
  16. Goggul (myrrh tree extract)
  17. Apple cider vinegar
  • Preparations
  • Agents with inconsistent results or weak evidence
  1. Glucomannan (Dietary Fiber source)
    1. Modest weight loss in small trials
  2. Hydroxymethylbutyrate or Pyruvate
    1. May increase Lean Body Mass
  3. Yohimbine
  4. Ginseng
    1. No evidence to date supporting weight loss role
    2. May improve Glucose tolerance in diabetics
      1. Sotaniemi (1995) Diabetes Care 18:1373-5 [PubMed]
  5. Green Tea
  6. Pyruvate
  7. Raspberry Ketone
    1. Artificially synthesized to flavor food or as perfume in cosmetics
    2. Animal studies may show benefit in lipid metabolism
      1. No human studies to demonstrate benefit in weight loss
    3. No safety data for doses or frequency used for weight loss
      1. Palpitations have been reported
      2. Warfarin Drug Interaction reported (reduced Warfarin effect)
    4. References
      1. (2012) Presc Lett 19(5): 29
  8. Dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)
    1. Sex hormone precursor (Testosterone, Estrogen)
    2. May reduce abdominal fat
    3. May increase Insulin sensitivity
    4. Long-term safety unclear
      1. Risk of Breast Cancer and Prostate Cancer
    5. References
      1. (2004) JAMA 292:2243 [PubMed]
  • Preparations
  • Agents with significant safety concerns (do not use)
  1. Avoid Ephedra
    1. Significant adverse effects (see Ephedra for risks)
    2. Marginal benefit in weight loss (1 kg)
    3. Shekelle (2003) JAMA 289:1537-45 [PubMed]