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Gestational Diabetes

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Gestational Diabetes

  1. Overall: 6% of pregnant women in U.S.
  2. High risk groups (see below): 14%
  • Pathophysiology
  1. Pancreatic Beta cell hyperplasia is normal in pregnancy
    1. Higher Fasting and postprandial Insulin levels
  2. Placental hormones increase Insulin Resistance (esp. third trimester)
  3. Gestational Diabetes results when increased beta cell function does not overcome Insulin Resistance
  • Risk Factors
  1. Maternal Age > 35 years old (OR 1.6)
  2. Family History of Diabetes Mellitus in first degree relative (RR 1.7)
  3. Body Mass Index >25 kg/m2 (OR 3.2)
  4. Weight gain >11 lb (5 kg) since 18 years old (RR 1.7)
  5. Personal History of Diabetes Mellitus
    1. See Diabetes Mellitus Preconception Counseling
    2. Previous abnormal lab testing
      1. Gestational Diabetes diagnosis in prior pregnancy (OR 13.2)
      2. Glucose Challenge Test (GCT)
      3. Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT)
      4. Glycosuria (Urine Glucose positive)
    3. Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus
      1. Polyuria (pre-pregnant)
      2. Polydypsia
      3. Blurred vision
  6. Prior Pregnancy Complication
    1. History of infant with Macrosomia (OR 1.4)
      1. Weight exceeds 4000 grams or 9 pounds
    2. Excessive gestational weight gain (OR 1.4)
    3. History of infant with Congenital Anomaly
    4. Prior Stillbirth
    5. Habitual Abortions
    6. Preeclampsia
    7. Polyhydramnios
  7. Ethnicity
    1. Asian (RR 2.3)
    2. Native American (RR 2.1)
    3. Pacific Islander (RR 2.1)
    4. Black (RR 1.8)
    5. Hispanic (RR 1.5)
  8. Other associated factors
    1. Hypertension
    2. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection
    3. Recurrent Vaginitis
  9. References
    1. Getahun (2010) Am J Obstet Gynecol 203(5): 467 [PubMed]
  • Labs
  • Screening
  1. Glucose Challenge Test (GCT)
    1. Non-Fasting patient drinks 50 grams of Glucose and has Serum Glucose drawn at 1 hour
    2. Abnormal if Serum Glucose exceeds 130 mg/dl
    3. Empiric Gestational Diabetes Management for GCT >200 mg/dl (without a 3 hour GTT)
    4. Timing of Test
      1. High Risk (See Risk Factors above)
        1. Perform GCT at initial Antepartum Visit
        2. Rescreen GCT at 24-28 weeks if initially negative
      2. Low Risk
        1. Perform GCT at 24-28 weeks
  2. Glucose Tolerance Test
    1. Indicated for abnormal Glucose Challenge Test
    2. Fasting patient drinks 100 grams of Glucose
    3. Serum Glucose drawn Fasting, 1,2, 3 hours
    4. Interpretation
      1. See Glucose Tolerance Test
      2. Abnormal if 2 or more readings over respective cut-offs
      3. Thresholds for Fasting and 1, 2, and 3 hours: Glucose 95, 180, 155 and 140 mg/dl)
  • Complications
  • Fetal
  1. Fetal Macrosomia (RR 1.6)
    1. Operative delivery risk (Ceserean section)
    2. Shoulder Dystocia or other Birth Trauma risk (RR 2.9)
  2. Hypoglycemia
  3. Hypothermia
  4. Hyperbilirubinemia
  5. Hypocalcemia
  6. Premature birth
  7. Respiratory distress syndrome
  8. Polycythemia Vera (plethora)
  9. Obesity during childhood (RR 1.5)
  10. Birth defects (RR 1.2)
  • Complications
  • Maternal
  1. Longterm risk of developing Diabetes Mellitus
    1. Consider periodic Diabetes Screening
    2. Bellamy (2009) Lancet 373(9677):1773-9 +PMID:19465232 [PubMed]
  2. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in future pregnancy (RR 7.4)
  3. Gestational Hypertension (RR 1.6)
  4. Preeclampsia (RR 1.5)
  5. Ceserean Section (RR 1.3)
  • Prognosis
  1. See Gestational Diabates perinatal mortality
  2. Adverse perinatal outcomes (see above) include infant death, Shoulder Dystocia, Fracture, nerve palsy
  3. Maternal and fetal outcomes are significantly improved with good Blood Sugar control
    1. Adverse perinatal outcomes are reduced from 4% without treatment to <1% with treatment
    2. Crowther (2005) N Engl J Med 352(24): 2477-86 [PubMed]
    3. Metzger (2008) N Engl J Med 358(19): 1991-2002 [PubMed]
  • Resources
  1. AHRQ Screening and Diagnosing Gestational Diabetes
    1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK114844/